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 Md. Arifur Rahman Roll-08  Paritosh Chandra Dash Roll-20  Md. Abdur Rashid Roll-35  Hazrat Ali Roll-41  Md. Shihabul Islam Roll-44

 Man made fibre  85% or more ester of substituted aromatic carboxylic acid.  Produce by reacting ethylene glycol with either terephtalic

acid or its methyl ester in the presence of an antimony catalyst.  Temperature 300ºC  Five to eight hours.

 Wallace Carothers in 1920 first introduce filament production process.  Polyester was commercialized in the 1950. .  Polyester was first produce in 1940 by Calico Printers Association in Great Britain.

250-7.950 kg/cm2 (70.000-85.350-8. Tensile Strength:  High tenacity filament: 7.950 kg/cm2 (70.000- 125000 lb/in2)  Medium tenacity filament: 4.000 lb/in2) .000105.000 lb/in2)  Medium tenacity staple: 4.00085.000 lb/in2)  High tenacity staple: 5.750 kg/cm2 (105.900-5.350 kg/cm2 (75.900-5.

. Elongation:  High tenacity filament: 8-11 per cent (depending on     type) Medium tenacity filament: 15-30 per cent High tenacity staple: 20-30 per cent Medium tenacity staple: 30-50 per cent The extension at break is virtually unaffected by moisture.

bending and share. and from compression. . Elastic Recovery:  ‘Terylene’ fibres have a good recovery from stretch.

61 g./denier-cm .-cm. Average Toughness:  High tenacity filament: 0.-cm.325 g.50 g.-cm./denier-cm  Medium tenacity filament: 0./denier-cm  Medium tenacity staple: 0.

the abrasion resistance of standard ‘Terylne’ is of a high order compared with that of most textile fibres. both natural and man-made.Abrasion resistance:  For identically constructed materials. . being exceeded only by nylon among the commoner fibres.

/ 20ºC . approx  Sticking temp: 230-240ºC  Specific heat: 0. Specific Gravity: 1.38  Thermal Properties:  Softening point: 260ºC.C.

After prolonged exposure. . it suffers a gradual loss of s Heat:  The fibre becomes tacky at 235 ºC and melts at 250 ºC  trength. Effect of sunlight:  “Terylene” has a high resistance to degradation by light. but does not discolour.

 Dye ability:  Disperse and azoic dyes and some pigments are used. Bleaches:  Not affect by oxidizing or reducing bleaches. .  Stains:  Resistance to water borne.  Flammability:  Burns slowly will shrink away from flame. yet will exhibit melt drip.

 Alkalis:  Resistance to alkali. even to mineral acid and thus has this advantage over the polyamides concentrated sulfuric acid disintegrate the fibre. Strong hot alkalis results in a slow thinning of the diameter by saponification. the relatively impenetrable structure restricts alkaline attack to the surface.  Organic solvent:  Adequate all round resistance including dry cleaning solvents. although an ester. Acids:  Polyester is very resistant. .

-Good fastness to washing but poor rubbing fastness after steam/heat setting in case of azoic red & marrons. Azoic Dyestuffs -Produce bright reds &marrons.mainly use for polyester fibre dyeing .  Vat Dyestuffs -Limited range of shades -Build up to only medium depths  Disperse Dyestuffs -A wide range of shades is available -Color fastness to wash. light.a black & a navy blue.rubbing etc .is good .

. In 1953 this dye was named as “Disperse Dye”. A dye named ionamine was made by Green & Saunders in 1922. acrylic etc. Baddiley and Ellis produced sulpho ricinoleic acid (SRA) for dyeing acetate fibres. But this ion amine does not give satisfactory result in dyeing. Later it was seen that SRA was capable of dyeing Nylon. polyester. This SRA was used as dispersing agent.  In 1924.

 Non ionic dyes  Insoluble in water  Suitable for dyeing hydrophobic fibres  Mainly used for dyeing synthetic fibres specially acetate & polyester fibres  Carrier or dispersing agents are used  Fair to good light fastness  Moderate to good wash fastness  Applied in acidic medium  Smallest molecular size .

Amino ketone dyes c). Di-azo dyes According to Fastness properties: a). Mono azo dyes e). Anthraquinonoid dyes d). According to Chemical structure:  a). Group A (Excellent dyeing & good fastness properties) b). Group C ( Moderate in HT & Carrier dyeing with higher fastness properties than Group B) d). Group D ( Excellent fastness to heat) . Nitro dyes b). Group B (Excellent in HT & Carrier dyeing with moderate fastness) c).

104110⁰C. According to energy level: a).better sublimation fastness than low energy dyes) c). Low energy dyes ( Used to dye with carrier. Medium energy dyes (Required temp. High energy dyes ( suitable for continuous dyeing. temp. poor resistance to sublimation. all round fastness properties) . above 129⁰C . 77⁰C tem required) b).

Mono azo dyes = 50% Anthraquinonoid dyes = 25% Di azo dyes = 10% Methyne dyes = 3% Styryl dyes = 3% Acrylene benzimidazol = 3% Quinonaphthalon dyes = 3% Amino napthyl amide = 1% Naphthaquinone amine = 1% Nitro disperse dyes = 1% .

105-140⁰c  Thermasol dyeing method: continuous method of dyeing.dyeing method: dyeing temp.80-100⁰c  Carrier dyeing method :dyeing temp.180-220⁰c  Pad roll method:semi continuous dyeing method  Pad steam method: continuous dyeing method .dyeing temp. Normal dyeing method:dyeing temp.80-100⁰c  High temp.

3. 4. 7.chemicals & auxiliaries Overall economy of the syestem Dyeing temperature . 2. 5.1. 6. Available dyeing machines Required color effect Required color fastness Type of material to be dyed Cost of dye.

temperature above 100⁰ C is required for swelling of fibers In case of carrier dyeing method swelling occurs at 8590⁰C In case of thermosol dyeing method.Temperature: In case of high temperature dyeing method . if temperature is kept more. fabric is kept for less time in thermosol unit. If it is kept more time dye sublimation and loss of fabric strength may occur .

5  For maintaining PH generally acetic acid is used  At this pH dye exhaustion is satisfactory  Correct pH should be maintained otherwise fastness will be inferior and colour will be unstable. .5-5. In high temperature solubility of disperse dye increase PH :  PH should be 4.

 To avoid shade variation.  To increase safe ironing temperature.  Affect water inhibition. .  To resist creasing during dyeing and washing.  To improve dimensional stability. To modify crystalline structure.

 It also improves wash fastness A typical recipe for reduction cleaningDetergent = 1g/l Hydrose = 2g/l Caustic soda = 2-3 g/l . By reduction cleaning surface dye molecules or unfixed dye molecules are strippd after dyeing and this result in level dyeing .

 The dyeing is considered to take place in the following simultaneous steps:  Diffusion of dye in solid phase into water by breaking up into individual molecules. . This diffusion depends on dispersibility and solubility of dyestuff and is aided by the presence of dispersing agents and increasing temperature. This dyestuff adsorption by fibre surface is influenced by the solubility of the dye in the dye bath and that in the fibre.  Adsorption of the dissolved dye from the solution onto the fibre surface.

In normal condition. the adsorption rate is always higher than the diffusion rate.  When equilibrium dyeing is reached. the following equilibria are also established:  Dye dispersed in the bath  Dye dissolved in the bath  Dye adsorbed on the fibre Dye dissolved in the bath Dye adsorbed on the fibre Dye diffused in the fibre . And this is the governing step of dyeing. Diffusion of the adsorbed dye from the fibre surface into the interior of the fibre substance towards the centre.

Carrier Dyeing Method 2.Thermasol Method . There are mainly three method 1. & High pressure Method 3.High temp.

5-1. Dye .For light shade<0.5%  For deep shade>1.5 M:L : 1:10 Time : 60-120 min Temperature : 90-100°C .5%  For medium shade 0.5%  Carrier (phenol)        : 2-5% Acetic acid : 1gm/lit Dispersing agent:1.2gm/lit Sequestering agent: 1-2gm/lit pH :4-5.


Thus polymer chains become movable and so dye molecules may enter the polymer system of fibre.  It increases the solubility of dye in the dye bath.  Carrier takes dye inside the fibre from dye carrier association. It creates dye film on fibre surface. .  It increases fibre swelling.  Carriers penetrate inside the fibre polymer chain and thereby reduce inter-chain attraction.

 The absorbed carrier increases the rate of dye uptake by creating liquid co-fibre.  It increases the absorbency power of fibre.  2-10 gm/lit carrier is used depending on material and liquor ratio and depth of shade .  It lubricates the thermally agitated fibre molecules.

 Dye        : 3% Dispersing agent: 1-2gm/lit Sequestering agent:1-2 gm/lit Acetic acid : 1gm/lit Time : 60 min Temperature : 130°C pH : 4-5.5 M:L : 1:10 .


. Thermasol method is continuous methods of dyeing with disperse dye.  It requires only a few seconds to 1 min and temperature about 200-230°C. Here dyeing is performed at high temperature like 180-220°C in a close vessel. Here time of dyeing should be maintained very carefully to get required shade and to retain required fabric strength.

 The sequence of operation is: Padding drying Thermofixing Aftertreatment .

 Then the fabric is dried at 100°C temperature in dryer. infra red drying method is an ideal method by which water is evaporated from fabric in vapor form. At first the fabric is padded with dye solution using above recipe in a three bowl padding mangle. . This eliminates the migration of dye particles. For dyeing.

dye and depth of shade.  Then soap wash or reduction cleaning is done if required. . Then the fabric is passed through thermasol unit where thermo fixing is done at about 205°C temp for 60-90 seconds depending on type of fibre.  After thermo fixing the unfixed dyes are washed off along with thickener and other chemicals by warm water. In thermasol process about 75-90% dye is fixed on fabric.

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