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EXPANDING MUMBAI

Group Members: Hardik Savla Paras Savla Dimple Shah Jatin Shah Karan Shah Khushbu Shah 43 44 45 46 47 48

INTRODUCTION TO MUMBAI
Mumbai city have population densities of around 46,000 per square kilometer among the highest in the world.

Mumbai is India's largest city and is considered the financial capital of the country as it generates 5% of the total GDP

Mumbai's GDP and its per-capita income is almost three times the national average.

Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) has ranked Mumbai as an "Alpha world city", third in its categories of Global cities.

In central Mumbai, there is an increasingly large recycling industry, processing recyclable waste from other parts of the city; the district has an estimated 15,000 single-room factories.

CONTRIBUTION OF MUMBAI IN INDIA


Gross Development Product Factory employment Industrial output Income tax collections Central excise tax collections 5% 10% 33% 60% 20%

Mumbai's GDP is Rs 200,483 crore (US$ 41.3 billion) Per-capita income is Rs. 65,361 (US$ 1,350)

MUMBAI KEY ISSUES


The environmental problems of Mumbai have emerged due to the creation of the city itself.

Pollution, population and lack of space have been ultimate problems of Mumbai.

26/7 is not a sudden indicator of the environmental mess the city has got .

Leopard attacks in a bustling city, landslides, abnormally high temperatures in summers, erratic rainfall have long since warned the city of the impending doom.

The genesis of the environmental problems of Mumbai is in the fact that Mumbaikars refuse to believe that there is a problem. Migration is one of major problem city is facing today.

PROBLEM FACED BY CITY ITS IMPACT AND SOLUTION MIGRATION

The movement of people across a specified boundary for the purpose of establishing a new or semi-permanent residence About 75 per cent of the migrants originate from the rural areas compared urban areas Migration from other states, mostly Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, has increased over the last two decades. Issues faced due to migration are Congestion, Traffic increase , More pollution ( Water , Air, Noise, Carbon emissions), Water scarcity, Solid waste management, Place constraint Increase in Real estate prices, Power scarcity.

Solution:
Prohibiting licenses for more industries to open Requesting Govt to provide more SEZ Shifting chemical, steel, leather and other industries giving rise to

pollution to SEZ areas

Developing a organized city - well planned (Transport, electricity, water, parking, pollution controlled city with proper housing and drainage disposal)

MANGROVES
Mangroves are an integral part of the landscape of Mumbai. Mangroves are small sturdy woody plants which are found in low-lying shallow areas. Mangrove ecosystems serve as a buffer between land and sea. They actually protect the land from the impact of the sea and by trapping silt they also maintain the integrity of Mumbai's shoreline Mumbai is surrounded by over 5000 acres of mangrove swamps spread over various areas.

Mangroves situated in the creek play an important role of flushing the water before it reaches the sea. The narrowing of the mouth of the creek causes the effluents to get trapped near the mouth which is slowly destroying this ecosystem.
Mangroves land has been reclaimed in the name of slum rehabilitation and garbage dumps.

POLLUTION
Mumbai is paying a heavy price for its high degree of industrialisation and urbanisation In form of a pollution. Mumbai produces 5,000 tonnes of garbage Noise levels were exceedingly high, being met at only 35 of the 254 locations that were monitored. In Mumbai, noise levels up to 112 decibels were recorded, which is higher than the sound audible from a jet aircraft taking off at a distance of 100 meters. The 'Environment Monitor had said that 99 per cent of sewage generated by municipal councils and over 50 per cent sewage generated by municipal corporations go untreated.

Mismanagement of waste other than domestic is also a major source of pollution.

Bombay has a very high incidence of chronic respiratory problems, arising from extreme air pollution. Mumbai's size and high growth rate, urban sprawl, traffic congestion, inadequate sanitation, and pollution pose serious threats to the quality of life in the city. Breathing Mumbai's air has been likened to smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day!

WATER MANAGEMENT
The rainy seasons in Mumbai have always brought heavy rainfall but not like the ones that Mumbai has experienced in 2005, 2006 and2007. The city had been much affected by the flooding and aftermath of flooding. Every day, 550 million gallons of drinking water must be brought to Mumbai from a distance of over 100 miles. Urbanisation effects on Groundwater Hydrology: 1. Increase in water demand 2. More dependence on ground water use 3. Over exploitation of ground water 4. Increase in run-off, decline in well yields and fall in water levels 5. Reduction in open soil surface area 6. Reduction in infiltration and deterioration in water quality

SOLUTION
Artificial recharge to ground water : Is a process by which the ground water reservoir is augmented at a rate exceeding that obtaining under natural conditions or replenishment. Rain Water Harvesting: There are two main techniques of rain water harvestings. 1. Storage of rainwater on surface for future use: The storage of rain water on surface is a traditional techniques and structures used were underground tanks, ponds, check dams, weirs etc

2. Recharge to ground water: . Recharge to ground water is a new concept of rain water harvesting

Structures generally used are Water harvesting:


1. Pits 2. Trenches 3. dug wells 4. Hand pumps 5. Recharge wells 6. Recharge shafts

Benefits of Artificial Recharge:


Improvement in infiltration and reduction in run-off. Improvement in groundwater levels and yields. Reduces strain on Special Village Panchayats/ Municipal / Municipal Corporation water supply Improvement in groundwater quality Estimated quantity of additional recharge from 100 sq. m. roof top area is 55.000 liters.

LAND
According to international standards, the minimum amount of open space required per

thousand persons is 4 acres; for Mumbai, it is merely 0.03 acres per 1000 people.

Mill-land owners were allowed to sell or develop their land giving two-thirds land to the city; one-third each for government housing and green space.
This would mean that the city would possess 200 acres of breathing space. Construction has to be accompanied with a proportionate increase in the supply of civic amenities like water, electricity, drainage, roads and parking facilities thus leading to congestion and pollution. Such rulings have been passed only in favour of short-term benefits and have not tried to foresee future disasters

HEALTH & SAFETY Mumbai health and safety is badly affected by the pollution. There are more chronic health problems resulting due to modernization, liberalization and globalization of the market.

Mumbaikers are increasingly subject to stress ailments as the booming city life takes its toll on the health and wellness of its citizens.

The changing health problems are the result of an increasingly hurried lifestyle. Work hours have risen over the last few years as India's economy has expanded on a global scale.

The reason for concern is the ensuing long term effects. Over time, living with chronic stress poses endemic health problems both mentally and physically.

Traditional ailments such as malaria, tuberculosis and cholera continue to play a viable threat to the health of many Mumbaikers, as well as to the rest of India.

INADEQUACIES IN THE EXISTING PUBLIC HEALTH CARE INFRASTRUCTURE IN MUMBAI


Mumbai has a vast public health infrastructure catering to slum dwellers comprising of three tertiary hospitals 13 peripheral hospitals with maternity wards, 25 maternity hospitals, 167 health post and 150 dispensaries.
90% of child deliveries occur in hospitals, the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) in Mumbai has been static at 40 per 1000 births in the last six years. The existing public healthcare infrastructure is over stretched by the burgeoning population. There are no systems in place to collect data about maternal and child health care issues. Lack of continuing medical education for doctors, nurses or the paramedical staff. Poor communication, transportation and blood banking services

Top 5 sensitive diseases during April 2008- March 2010

TRANSPORTATION
Transportation in Mumbai is a huge problem, especially due to the geography of the island

The only highways that exist in Mumbai are the East and West Highways that run north/south along the eastern and western coasts of the island.
Mumbai's lack of a subway system has been severely detrimental to the commuting congestion and times that the city experiences. Types of Transportation in Mumbai Mumbai has several different bus systems, all owned by private companies. The largest is the BEST bus system with 3031 buses which carry an average of 5 million people per day. The road network consists of 1431 kilometers of thoroughfares which handle an average of 6.2 million people per day. The most used mode of transportation is rail. The number of commuters using railroads has increased five fold between 1959 and 1989.

Solution
Managing traffic in Mumbai rests on four pillars 1. Infrastructure, 2. Policies, 3. Transport Solutions 4. Law Enforcement.

These when implemented in a phased wise manner could help us take the bull by the horns
Alternative transportation systems are a pre-requisite to decongest Mumbai. The congestion charge system like the one in London is levied to dissuade citizens from using private cars and shift to public transport.

Waste Disposal Problems


Currently all the waste is dumped in the 110 hectare Deonar dumping ground, which rises up to 7 stories high. The dumping ground was opened in 1927 and accepted approximately 1,450,000 tonnes of waste in 2006. Currently, the site has approximately 9.2 million tonnes of waste in place. Because of dumping of garbage without segregation, the bacteria present react with it which releases an estimated amount of 4,251 m3/hr of biogas, mostly containing methane. Mumbai desperately needs a solution for its waste disposal, more importantly it needs citizens to stand up against a shoddy system that is on the verge of collapsing. BMC is all set to give away the first-ever biggest contract worth Rs 704 crore for the scientific partial closure of the Deonar dumping ground The entire project would cost the BMC Rs 5,000 crore over a period of 25 years.

Deonar to do a Gorai
After the successful closure of the Gorai dumping ground was recognised globally at UN Climate Change Conference, a similar project is set to be replicated at Deonar

The BMC is also contemplating the reorganising of the dumping ground by shifting the scattered waste to a defined footprint area. The area will be layered and fresh soil will be put to facilitate growth of shrubs and plants, said a senior civic official. Moreover, the space will be used to generate thermal power.

Over 60 landfills will be constructed to collect gas and generate 6MW of electricity. Meanwhile, the dumping ground at Mulund will also be improvised to generate 3MW of electricity

BMC is expected to spend more than Rs230 crore in rectification and environment-friendly closure of the grounds at Deonar and Mulund.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME


Damupada- Kandivili : There is cluster of stone crushers and hot mix plants so the area is facing problem of air pollution. To overcome this problem this office has taken action against above units like issuing closure directions and also taking bank guarantee. This action has led to positive development in the overall air quality.

Powai & Chandivili : There are a cluster of stone crushers and hot mix plants in this area & hence air pollution is a major concern in this sector too. To overcome this problem, this office has taken action against certain polluting units issuing closure directions and also taking bank guarantee etc. As results, there is remarkable change in air quality.

Bhuleshwar Area : There are several gold refinery units in this area, which are causing air pollution. Recently this office has carried out survey of this area and is trying to overcome the problem at the grass root level.

BUILDER-BUREAUCRAT-POLITICIAN NEXUS
We have examined several aspects of the environmental problems faced by Mumbai. Each of the above problems is the collective result of the nexus between builders, bureaucrats and politicians who have time and again exploited the city's land and its people for selfish gains
All infrastructure projects with an environmental clearance are used to create more land so that this extra land can be allotted to builders and more money can be made. More and more land is created from the sea, destroying all buffer zones of the city and leaving no room for the movement of seawater. In order to have an opportunity to develop more land, urbanization of the Vasai-Virar and Bhayander belts was allowed. Another form of governmental exploitation of open spaces is the dereservation of plots earmarked for gardens and playgrounds within the city limits.

The development plan's amenity spaces ratio is 0.2 acres per 1,000 people. Of this, 82 per cent is taken over by slums so that the actual ratio is 0.03 acres per 1,000 people
This is the lowest in the world.

FSI is given on that plot its worth increases further. So with an investment of a lakh of rupees you can make Rs.20-50 crores.

Conclusion
From the study, that each and every environmental and social parameter of Mumbai are very much deprived. In case adequate steps are not taken to prevent pollution and to improve the quality of life by providing more social amenities. Vehicular pollution control in metropolitan cities and other cities deserves top priority. Urgent attention should be given to reduce the generation of solid waste at the sources through mandatory standards and regulation fee and tax incentives, and education and voluntary compliance. There is an urgent need to tackle the problem of population growth in the Mumbai in a rational manner.

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