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Introduction to Textile Manufacturing

(TEXT-175)

Fabric Formation: Weaving

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Textile Fabrics

Textile Fabrics

Textile Fabrics .

Weaving Weaving is one of the most common methods of fabric formation by interlacing of warp and weft threads. .

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Yarn Preparation before Weaving .

Yarn Preparation before Weaving .

Warping onto a Section Beam .

Warping onto a Section Beam .

Warping from Section Beam onto a Weaver’s Beam .

Yarn Preparation before Weaving .

Weaving .

Essential Weaving Operations • • • • Shedding Picking Beating up Taking up and letting off *A looped bundle of yarn is known as a hank in textile terminology. .

Shedding Raising specific warp yarns by means of a harness or heddle frame .

Shedding Raising specific warp yarns by means of a harness or heddle frame .

Picking Inserting filling yarns through the shed .

Picking Inserting filling yarns through the shed .

Beating up (Battering) Pushing filling yarns firmly in place by means of the reed .

Beating up (Battering) Pushing filling yarns firmly in place by means of the reed .

Taking up and letting off Winding the finished fabric on the cloth beam and releasing more of the warp from the warp beam .

Taking up and letting off Winding the finished fabric on the cloth beam and releasing more of the warp from the warp beam .

Types of Weaving • Shuttle Loom Weaving • Shuttleless Loom Weaving .

noisy) – Examples: Handloom. Circular etc. Power looms. .Types of Weaving • Shuttle Loom – Conventional loom that utilizes a shuttle containing a bobbin of filling yarn (weft/pick) passing through the warp (warp/ends) shed – Oldest kind of loom – Many disadvantages (slow. damages thread.

Types of Weaving • Shuttle Loom .

Airjet. Waterjet etc. .Types of Weaving • Shuttleless Looms – Any modern loom that overcomes the disadvantages of a shuttle loom by eliminating the use of shuttle for weft insertion – Examples: Projectile. Rapier.

light. gripper device propelled across the loom.Shuttleless Looms • Missile or Projectile Looms – The missile or projectile is a small light. pulling filling yarn behind it – Device smaller than a flying shuttle – Several missiles used on one loom – Produces very wide fabric – Not suitable for fragile fabrics .

Shuttleless Looms • Missile or Projectile Looms .

across the loom width – The rapier is a metal rod.Shuttleless Looms • Rapier Looms – Uses a rapier device to pull filling yarn through warp shed. with a weft gripper at the end – Rapier mechanism is more capable of producing delicate fabric as compared to missile weaving . either flexible or rigid.

Shuttleless Looms • Rapier Looms .

Shuttleless Looms • Jet Looms – Jet looms take the filling yarn across the loom by using high speed jet of either air or water – The force of air or water carries the yarn across the loom – Faster than missile or rapier looms with higher picks per minute (ppm) – Jet looms cause no abrasion to the yarn unlike missile or rapier – Water jet ideal for hydrophobic fibers .

Shuttleless Looms • Airjet Looms .

Fabric Features • • • • • Selvage Warp and filling yarns Face and back Top and bottom Yarns per inch .

” .Selvage (Selvedge) “A Selvage is the lengthwise edge of a fabric.

• Stretchability: Usually there is more elongation in the width-wise direction. • Yarns per Inch: Usually. • Yarn sizes: Usually warp yarns are thinner so they will abrade less as they pass through the loom. there are more warp yarns per inch than filling yarns per inch .Identifying Warp & Filling Yarns • Selvage: The warp yarns will always be parallel to the selvage.

(It should not be confused with yarn count. • For example. 80 x 74 (pronounced eighty-byseventy-four) means 80 yarns per inch in the warp and 74 yarns per inch in the filling.Yarns Per Inch • The yarns per inch in a fabric is given by two numbers with an x between them. • The yarns per inch in the warp and in the filling is called the fabric count or thread count. which refers to the degree of fineness in yarns!) .

Basic Fabric Weaves • There are three basic weaves: – Plain weave – Twill weave – Satin weave • All other weaves are a variation or combination of these weaves. • The type of weave used in a fabric depends upon the fabric’s desired appearance and performance. .

Basic Fabric Weaves .

Plain Weave • Simplest and most inexpensive • Requires only two harnesses • Each filling yarn goes alternatively under and over a warp yarn across the fabric width .

Twill Weave • Produces diagonal lines on cloth • In a right-hand twill. the diagonals run upward toward the left. the diagonals run upward toward the right. • Denim . and in a left-hand twill.

• Long floats . and each weft yarn. • No interlacing ever touch.Satin Weave • Similar to twill. or are adjacent. but there is only one interlacing for each warp.

Weave Floats When one yarn does not interlace with the next adjacent yarn. it is said to be a float. . but passes over two or more adjacent yarns.