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Solid Waste Management

Prepared by:

Sagar Tandel(11041) Spandan Thakkar(11042) Chintan Upadhyay(11043) Dharmesh Vasani(11044) Chirag Vasava(11045) Meghna Bhavsar(11048) Hardik Chaudhari(11049)

Introduction
What is solid waste management?? What happened in ancient times??? Athens started it first in several Mediterranean cities. Initial disposal methods were crude and just open pits outside the city walls. • As population increased, efforts were taken. • • • •

• Until recently, the disposal of municipal solid waste did not attract much public attention. • Favored means were to dump outside the city and burn or compact them. • Waste is burnt to reduce the volume.

• Modern methods of disposal like incineration and development of sanitary landfills etc. are now attempting to solve the problems. • Problem which is faced today is lack of space. • The method of collection, processing, resource recovery and the final disposal should be synchronized to achieve a common objective.

.• A Video on solid waste management at Vancouver.

Characteristics of municipal solid waste .

• The term MSW is used to describe most of the nonhazardous solid waste from a city. town or village that requires routine collection and transport to a processing or disposal site. .

Sources • Private homes • Commercial establishments • Institutions It contains: • Dry garbage • Wet garbage .

Control measures of urban and industrial wastes • Source reduction • Recycling • Disposal .

reuse of products on site.Source reduction • Fundamental way of reducing waste • Use less material while making a product. designing products or packaging to reduce their quantity • On an individual basis we can reduce the use of unnecessary items while shopping. buy items with minimum packaging. avoid buying disposable items and also avoid asking for plastic carry bags .

Recycling • Recycling is reusing some components of the waste that may have economic value. Benefits: • Conversation of resources reduction in energy used during manufacturing • Reducing pollution levels .

• Problem with recycling is often technical or economical. E.g. plastic. paper .

Solid waste placed in suitably selected and prepared land and in carefully prescribed manner . • Modern sanitary landfills has impermeable soil layer and impermeable membrane • Three characteristics of landfills that distinguish it from open dump are: 1.Disposal of solid waste • Done commonly through sanitary landfills or through incineration.

3. Waste covered each day with compacted soil • Old landfills have problem of ground water pollution • Organic waste decompose till the waste is in contact of oxygen • Anaerobic decomposition produces poisonous and explosive gases like methane which need to be vented out .Disposal of solid waste 2. Waste is spread out and compacted with heavy machinery.

Modern landfill .

Disposal of solid waste • Thus a proper venting system to collect blocked gas and vent it to surface is a necessary component of sanitary landfill design • Problems of landfills: 1 Difficulty in finding suitable land 2. Even ultra modern landfills pose a danger of environmental pollution in form of leachates leakage .

and operating conditions. . • Reduces solid waste by 90% in volume and 75% in weight. • This process produces carbon-di-oxide and water which are released in environment.Incineration • Process of burning municipal solid waste in properly designed furnace in suitable temp.

Possible presence of heavy metal in bottom ash and fly ash can be very harmful 3.Incineration • Problems with incineration 1. High technical supervision and skilled employees for proper segregation and operations are required Given all pros and cons SOURCE REDUCTION and RECYCLING are MOST EFFECTIVE METHODs . Produces bottom ash and fly ash 2.

Vermicomposting • What is Compost??? • The organisms in the soil use the organic material as food which in turn provides them with nutrients for their growth and activities. . • These nutrients are returned to soil to be used again by trees and other plants. • The soil can be used as manure for farms and gardens.

Steps • Dig a pit about half a meter square and one meter deep. • Organize the disposal of organic into the pit as and when generated. • Line it with straw or dried leaves and grass. • Ensure that the contents are covered with a sprinkling of dried leaves and soil everyday . • Introduce a culture of worms that is now produced commercially.

• In about 45 days the waste will be decomposed by the action of the microorganisms. • The soil derived is fertile and rich in nutrients. • Turn over the contents of the pit every 15 days. .• Water the pit once or twice a week to keep it moist.

A video on Vermicomposting .

Characteristics of hazardous wastes • A waste is classified as a hazardous waste if it exhibits any of the four primary characteristics based on the physical or chemical properties of toxicity. • Toxic wastes are those substances that are poisonous even in very small or trace amounts. ignitability and corrosively. • Reactive wastes are those that have a tendency to react vigorously with air or water. For . are unstable to shock or heat. • Acute and Chronic toxicity. reactivity. generate toxic gases or explode during routine management. • Carcinogenic and Mutagenic substances.

For example. . and alcohol.Characteristics of hazardous wastes • Ignitable wastes are those that burn at relatively low temperatures (less than 60 C) and are capable of spontaneous combustion during storage. acids and bases. transport or disposal. For example. paint thinners. • Corrosive wastes are those that destroy materials and living tissue by chemical reaction. gasoline.

etc. . • Radioactive waste is basically an output from the nuclear power plants and can persist in the environment for thousands of years before it decays appreciably. used bandages and hypodermic needles. microbiological materials.Characteristics of hazardous wastes • Infectious wastes include human tissue from surgery.

Environmental problems and health risks caused by hazardous wastes .

and the most serious environmental effect is contaminated groundwater .Contaminated groundwater problem • Most of the hazardous wastes are disposed of or in land.

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inhalation and skin contact resulting in acute or chronic poisoning .Pesticides problem • Pesticides are widely used to protect and increase food production • They form residues in the soil • Exposures can occur through ingestion.

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Hazardous substances • Lead • Mercury • Arsenic .

pipes etc. • Most of the lead taken by people and wildlife is stored in bones • Lead can affect red blood cells by reducing their ability to carry oxygen and shortening their life span • Lead may also damage nerve tissue which can result in brain disease . pesticides.Lead • Lead is used in batteries. paints. fuel.

mercury can be consumed by plankton which are consumed by fish. which are then consumed by people .Mercury • Mercury is used in the production of chlorine and plastics • Our body has limited ability to eliminate mercury • In an aquatic environment.

Polychlorinated biphenyls • It is widely used for industrial purposes • Rainwater can wash PCBs out of disposal areas in dumps and landfills thus contaminating water • PCBs do not break down very rapidly in the environment and thus retain their toxic characteristics .

circulation disorder etc. it can cause deafness. . vision problems.Vinyl chloride • It is widely used in the manufacture of plastics • In humans.

Methods for disposing off hazardous wastes • Land disposal • Incineration • Recycling .

. .CASE(MINAMATA –LESSON ABOUT MERCURY) • • • • • MINAMATA BAY IN JAPAN MERCURY POISONING USED TO PRODUCE VINYL CHLORIDE DEATH BY CONSUMING MERCURY MOTHERS GAVE BIRTH TO INFANTS Video….

CASE….VISION PROBLEM.. • • • • • • PCB’S(POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS) CONCENTRATED IN LUNGS AND KIDNEY CAUSE REPRODUCTIVE FAILURE VINYL CHLORIDE USED IN MANUFACTURE OF PLASTIC DEAFNESS.BONE DEFORMITIES .

PREVENTION • • • • SUBSITUTE USE OF PCB AND VINYL CHLORIDE LESS USE OF PLASTICS LAND DISPOSAL INCENERATION(It is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.) .

and reduce the overall risk to human health or the environment • In other words. which reduces or eliminates the chance that you will harm the environment . substances or energy that avoid or minimize the creation of pollutants and waste. By making these changes you can eliminate or minimize the amount of waste you produce. and by changing the materials they use. products.Role of an Individual in Prevention of Pollution What is pollution prevention (P2)? • The use of processes. people can prevent pollution by changing how they do things. materials. practices.

Prevention of Pollution • Pollution prevention is more than capturing the pollution before it enters the environment: it seeks to eliminate the causes of pollution. It involves continual improvement through design. operational and behavioral changes . technical.Pollution Prevention vs. rather than to treat the pollution once generated.

Each individual must try to give answer of four basic questions o Where do the things that I consume come from? o What do I know about the place where I live? o How am I connected to the earth and other living things? o What is my purpose and responsibility as a human being? .

What can we do? • Develop respect or reverence for all forms of life • Try to plant more trees • Reduce the use of paper and wood products wherever possible • Help in restoring degraded area • Use pesticides only when it is inevitable • Advocate organic farming • Reduce the use of fossil fuels .

• • • • • • • Shut off electronic appliances when not needed Use rechargeable batteries Avoid use of plastic carry bags Don’t use throwaway paper and plastic Do not litter roads and surroundings Learn about biodiversity of your own area Can join NGOs. helping towards protection of environment .

• Use manure or compost instead of commercial inorganic fertilizers to fertilize gardens and yard plant • Support ecological land-use planning in your community • And finally take care to put into practice what you preach. . Remember environment protection begins with YOU.

Thank You .