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Measuring and Testing Instruments

Small Engines

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Measuring and Testing Instruments    Precision measuring instruments are used to determine if parts are to be rejected resulting in replacement. The repair of any gasoline engine should be based upon the manufactures recommendations in the service manual. The listing of clearance or tolerance measurements is expressed in . 2 .001 of an inch.

valve tappet clearance.Measuring and Testing Instruments  For example:  The spark plug gap might be listed as . ring-groove clearance.030 inch. Armature air gap. etc… 3  Specifications are normally listed for:  .030 meaning for normal operation the gap should be gapped at . piston to cylinder wall clearance.

025. 4 . One complete revolution of the thimble equals . It is designed to measure machined components where tolerances are critical as on a crankshaft journal. The marks on the thimble represent .001 inch each.Micrometer Caliper     One of the more common measuring devices is the outside micrometer caliper.

5 . The outside micrometer is the most common and can to measure the outside diameter of round objects.Micrometer Caliper    Every fourth line on the sleeve is longer than the others to help identify the whole numbers which represent tenths. and the width and thickness of flat pieces. A number of different types of micrometers are manufactured.

6 . grooves. The depth micrometer is used to measure the depth of holes. Micrometers are all read in the same manner.Micrometer Caliper    The inside micrometer is used to measure the diameter of a hole such as the inside diameter of an engine cylinder. and slots.

0-1 inch 1-2 2-3 Etc… 7 .Micrometer Caliper      Micrometers usually are designed to measure within a 1 inch range.

reject gauge. The most common gauges are the flat feeler gauge. round wire gauge. piston ring end gap.Thickness Gauges    A variety of different gauges are manufactured for measuring the clearance or gap between two parts. breaker-point gap. connecting rod to crankpin clearance. 8 . and plastigage. Some uses of thickness gauges are:  Spark plug gap.

9 .Thickness Gauges     The most commonly recognized thickness gauge is the flat feeler gage. Feeler gauges can be used to measure:  Valve tappet clearance. Each blade is stamped with its thickness. Each blade is a different thickness. air gap between the armature legs and the fly wheel magnet. crankshaft end play.

Thickness Gauges  Round-Wire feeler gauge   It has several applications for working with small engines. 10 . The most common of these is measuring the electrode gap of new or used spark plugs.

nogo.Thickness Gauges  Plug Gauge    Commonly used in small engine repair. 11 . Other names given to a plug gauge are go. Is used to determine if a valve guide bushing needs replacing. and reject gauges.

12 .Thickness Gauges  Plastigage   Can be used to measure clearance between the bearing journal on a crankshaft and its bearing or rod cap. The rod cap is tightened to a recommended torque measurement the flatten plastic is measured.

Torque Wrench    There are specs for the torque to which bolts should be tightened depending upon size and grade. Torque wrenches are usually calibrated in feet or pound inches. Torque equals force times distance. 13 .

valves and or gaskets. An accepted rule is that compression problems exist if the reading is 20% less than the minimum spec for the engine. piston rings. 14 .Compression Testing    Compression testing can help determine if the small engine being studied has a problem with either the cylinder. Normal engines one cylinder engines will have a 60-150 psi rating.

Compression Testing  Compression testers can either have a rubber tip which is held to the spark plug hole or a threaded end for screwing into the spark plug hole. 15 .

Tachometers   Tachometers are used to check the operating revolutions per minute of the engine. Cylinder Testing  A telescoping gage can be used to measure cylinder wear. 16 .