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Team leadership And ethical leadership

Submitted to: Prof. Margie Parikh

Submitted by : Kaustubh Deshmukh - 1915 Jiger Mulchandani – 1929 Krupa Ashara – 1947 Nipun Bhatiya – 1951 Shivanshi Pandey - 1984

Basics
Team : They are organizational groups composed of members who are • Interdependent • Share common goals • Must co-ordinate their activities to accomplish these goals

Leadership: • John Maxwell sums up his definition of leadership as "leadership is influence - nothing more, nothing less." • This moves beyond the position defining the leader, to looking at the ability of the leader to influence others - both those who would consider themselves followers, and those outside that circle. Indirectly, it also builds in leadership character, since without maintaining integrity and trustworthiness, the capability to influence will disappear.

Timeline
• 1920-1930s: study of groups begins with focus on human relations • 1940s: focus shifts to study of group dynamics and social science theory • 1950s: focus moves to sensitivity training and T-groups • 1960s-1970s: the era of organizational development focused with developing team and leadership effectiveness

behavioral and cognitive processes in team success and viability .• 1980s: competition from Japan encouraged focus on quality teams • 1990s: the rise of global perspective • 2000s: focus on team variables and focus no longer just on outcome • Current research is investigating the role of affective.

Team leadership model • The model points out that: • Leader is responsible for team effectiveness • Helps leader in diagnosing and correct team problems • Effective leadership begins with a mental model of the situation to be developed by the leader • In order to respond to the problem as identified in the model. a leader should be behaviorally flexible .

continued • Effective team leaders are able to construct accurate mental models of team problems and can act effectively • The group effectiveness should not be affected by the problem solving process • Plus. leaders must use discretion about which problems need intervention and which don’t .

Hills model for team leadership Leadership decisions •Monitor or take action •Task .

McGraths critical leadership functions .

Leadership Actions .

coordinating. delegating) • Facilitating decision making (informing. mediating. synthesizing. issue focusing) • Training team members in task skills (educating. developing) • Maintaining standards of excellence (assessing team and individual performance. visioning.Internal task leadership actions • Goal focusing (clarifying. clarifying roles. organizing. gaining agreement) • Structuring for results (planning. controlling. confronting inadequate performance) .

involving) • Managing conflict and power issues (avoiding confrontation. socializing. innovating. questioning ideas) • Building commitment and espirit de corpse (being optimistic. recognizing) • Satisfying individual member needs (trusting.Internal relational leadership action • Coaching team memebers in interpersonal skills • Collaborative (including. normative) . envisioning. supporting. consistent. advocating) • Modelling ethical and principled practices (fair. rewarding.

increase influence) • Advocating and representing team to environment • Negotiating upward to secure necessary resources. and recognotion of the team • Buffering team members from environmental distractions • Assessing environmental indicators of team’s effectiveness • Sharing relevant environmental information with team .External environment leadership actions • Networking and forming alliances in environment (gather information. support.

Team Effectiveness .

Criteria necessary for Effectiveness • Hackman & Walton • Larson & LaFasto .

Characteristics of team excellence (Larson & Lafasto) • Clear. Elevating Goal • Results-Driven Structure • Competent Team Members 1) Right number and mix of members 2) Information. training 3) Technical skills 4) Interpersonal skills 5) Openness 6) Supportiveness 7)Action orientation 8) Positive personal Style 9) Ability to do The job well 10)Problem Solving ability .

•Unified Commitment •Collaborative Climate facilitated by: – Making communication safe – Demanding and rewarding collaborative behavior – Guiding the team’s problem-solving efforts – Managing one’s own control needs .

Reviewing results .Accomplished through: .• Standards of Excellence .Requiring results .Rewarding results • External Support and Recognition • Principled Leadership: Influences team effectiveness through four sets of processes – Cognitive – Motivational – Affective – Integrative .

Conditions of Group Effectiveness (Hackman &Walton) • • • • • Clear engaging direction Enabling structure Enabling context Adequate material resources Expert coaching .

How does the model Work??? .

Strengths •Provides answers to what constitutes excellent teams • Provides a cognitive guide that assists leaders in designing and maintaining effective teams • Recognizes the changing role of leaders and followers in organizations •Can be used as a tool in group leader selection .

Criticisms •Complete model has not been totally supported or tested •May not be practical as the model is complex and doesn’t provide easy answers for difficult leader decisions • Fails to provide much guidance for handling everyday interactions and complications of team management •More focus required on how to teach and provide skill development in areas of diagnosis and action .

ETHICAL LEADERSHIP .

Honesty. Community building. Criticism. • Strengths. Greenleaf’s perspective on Ethical leadership • Principles of Ethical leadership : Respect. Serve.Contents What is Ethics? Ethical theory Centrality of Ethics to Leadership Heifetz’s. Burn’s. Justice. Application • • • • .

conduct. meaning customs.What is Ethics? • Is a derivative of the Greek word ethos. or character • Is concerned with the kinds of values and morals an individual or society ascribes as desirable or appropriate • Focuses on the virtuousness of individuals and their motives • Ethical Theory – Provides a system of rules or principles as a guide in making decisions about what is right/wrong and good/bad in a specific situation .

.Ethics and Leadership • What leaders do and who leaders are is determined by the nature of the leaders’ behavior and their virtuousness. • What choices leaders make and how they respond in a particular circumstance are informed and directed by their ethics.

Domains of Ethical Theories CONDUCT • Consequences (Teleological theories) • Ethical egoism • Utilitarianism • Duty (Deontological theories) CHARACTER • Virtue Based Theories .

• Consequences of actions determine goodness and badness of a particular behavior. • Attempt to answer questions about right and wrong by focusing on whether an individual’s conduct will produce desirable consequences. meaning Ends or Purposes. .Consequences (Teleological Theories) • Comes from Greek word – Telos.

Ethical Theory Based on Self Interest Vs Interest for Others High Ethical Concern For Self Medium Interest Egoism Utilitarianism Low Altruism Low Medium High Concern For The Interest of Others .

• Utilitarianism An individual should behave so as to create the greatest good for the greatest number.• Ethical egoism An individual should act so as to create the greatest good for herself/himself Closely related to Transactional leadership theories. Ex : Government Budget • Altruism An individual should act in the interest of others even when it runs contrary to his/her own interests. Ex : To achieve the goal of Profit Maximization of Company. Authentic Transformational leadership is based on this principle. Ex : Mother Teressa .

Telling truth.Duty (Deontological Theories) • Focus on the actions of the leader and his/her moral obligations and responsibilities to do the right thing. Being fair. • Actions of leader should not infringe on others’ rights. . keeping promises. • Ex. Respecting others.

emphasis on teaching what to be. Honesty. • Virtues : Courage.CHARACTER . • Rather teaching what to do. Modesty. Through practice good values become habitual and part of people themselves. Integrity.Virtue Based Theories • Approach ethics from the viewpoint of a leader’s character. virtues are rooted in the heart and disposition of the individual. Self control. • Virtues and Moral abilities are not innate but can be acquired and learned through practice. Generosity. . Fidelity. Temperance. Fairness. Justice. Humility. Benevolence. • Focus on who leaders are as a people.

Centrality of Ethics to Leadership • Ethics is central to leadership because – Nature of process of influence – Need to engage followers in accomplishing mutual goals – Impact leaders have on the organization’s values .

Heifetz’s Perspective Authority • Get people focused on issues • Act as a reality test regarding information • Manage and frame issues • Orchestrate conflicting perspectives • Facilitate the decision-making process Environment • Trust • Nurturance • Empathy Leaders help followers confront conflict & effect change Values of • Workers • Organization • Community .

Burn’s Perspective Leader’s Role • Assist followers in assessing their values & needs • Help followers to rise to a higher level of functioning Leaders help followers in their personal struggles concerning conflicting values Values • Liberty • Justice • Equality Connection • Relationship between leader & follower Raises level of morality of both .

Greenleaf’s Perspective Values • Involvement • Respect • Trust • Individual strength • Listening • Empathy • Unconditional acceptance Social Responsibility • Uses less institutional power • Uses less control • Shifts authority to followers Leaders focus on needs of followers Follower Needs • Become more knowledgeable • More autonomous • Become more like servants .

Principles of Ethical Leadership Respects others Builds Community Serves others Ethical Leadership Manifests Honesty Shows Justice .

Respects Other Treat others as ends in themselves and never as a means to ends – Treat other people’s values and decisions with respect – Allow others to be themselves with creative wants and desires – Approach others with a sense of unconditional worth and value individual differences – Leader behaviors • Listens closely to subordinates • Is empathic • Is tolerant of opposing viewpoints .

not for.Leaders have a duty to help others pursue their own legitimate interests and goals – Leaders are stewards of the organization’s vision.Serves Others • Follower-centered . and integrate the vision with. in serving others they: clarify.Based on the altruistic principle of placing followers foremost in the leader’s plans Beneficence . nurture. organization members – Leaders have an ethical responsibility to make decisions that are beneficial to their followers’ welfare – Leader behaviors • Mentoring behaviors • Empowerment behaviors • Team building behaviors • citizenship behaviors .

• Ethical leaders are concerned with issues of fairness. grounds for differential treatment are clear. reasonable. and based on sound moral values These principles are applied in different situations – To each person • An equal share • According to individual need • According to that person’s rights • According to individual effort • According to societal contribution • According to merit . they place issues of fairness at Shows Justice the center of their decision making – They adhere to principles of distributive justice • – Leader behaviors • All subordinates are treated in an equal manner • In special treatment/special consideration situations.

Manifests Honesty • Honest leaders are authentic but also sensitive to the feelings and attitudes of others – They are not deceptive – They tell the truth with a balance of openness and candor while monitoring what is appropriate to disclose in a particular situation – Leader behaviors • Don’t promise what you can’t deliver • Don’t suppress obligations • Don’t evade accountability • Don’t accept “survival of the fittest” pressures • Acknowledge and reward honest behavior in the organization .

Is the distinctive feature that delineates authentic transformational leaders from pseudo-transformational leaders – Transformational leaders and followers reach out beyond their own mutually defined goals to the wider community – Leader behaviors • Takes into account the purposes of everyone in the group • Is attentive to interests of the community and the culture • Does not force others or ignore the intentions of others .Builds Community • Concern for the common good means leaders cannot impose their will on others. – Concern for others . they search for goals that are compatible with everyone.

Strengths Provides a body of timely research on ethical issues Provides direction on how to think about ethical leadership and how to practice it Suggests that leadership is not an amoral phenomenon and that ethics should be considered as integral to the broader domain of leadership Highlights principles and virtues that are important in ethical leadership development .

Criticism • Lacks a strong body of traditional research findings to substantiate the theoretical foundations • Relies heavily on writings of just a few individuals that are primarily descriptive and anecdotal in nature. and are strongly influenced by personal opinion and a particular worldview .

Application • Can be applied to individuals at all levels of the organization and in all walks of life • Because leadership has a moral dimension. being a leader demands awareness on our part of the way our ethics defines our leadership • Managers and leaders can use the information on ethics to understand themselves and strengthen their own leadership • Leaders can use the ethical principles as benchmarks for their own behavior • Leaders can learn that the leader-follower relationship is central to ethical leadership .