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Garware Institute Of Career Education And Development University of Mumbai Post Graduate Program in Management Information Technology

Information Technology Study Presentation

23th Sep 2011
•Pushpendra Singh •Vikarant Sood • Yojana Wagle • Monika Shrivastav •Prasad Tawade, •Shweta Verpul

What is a Database?
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A structured collection of related data An filing cabinet, an address book, a telephone directory, a timetable, etc. Google and your email is a database School Student Information System

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DBMS A DBMS consists of a group of programs that manipulate the database and provide an interface between the database . the user of the database and other application programs. • A DBMS is a collection of programs which • provide management of databases • control access to data • contain a query language to retrieve information easily .

Means follow up of original data if in case of original data is virus infected. • Backup :. • Rule enforcement:.For security reason it is desirable to limit who can see or change specific attributes or groups of attributes.Often one wants to apply rules to attributes so that attributes are clean and reliable. • Security:. 4 .Features Of DBMS • Query Ability:-Query Ability Is The Process Of requesting attribute Information Form Various perspectives and Combination Of factors.

For frequently occuring usage patterns or requests. .This describes who accessed which attributes.cross – referring and so on. grouping .Features • Computation:... • Change and access logging:.Common computation requested on attributes are counting summing. averaging.. what was changed. and when it was changed. sorting.. • Automated optimization:.

DBMS Architecture Web Forms Front-End SQL Commands Plan Executor Operator Evaluator Parser Optimizer Recovery Manager DBMS SQL I/f SQL Engine Tx Manager Lock Manager Files & Access Buffer Manager Disk Space Manager Data File Catalog Database .

The External Model   Each end users’ view of the data environment Modeler subdivides requirements and constraints into functional (Business unit’s) modules  These can be examined within the framework of their external models .

The Conceptual Model • Global view of the entire database • Representation of data as viewed by the entire organization • Basis for identification and high-level description of main data objects. avoiding details .

The Internal Model • • • • The database as “seen” by the DBMS Maps the conceptual model to the DBMS Depicts a specific representation of an internal model Logical independence – Can change the internal model without affecting the conceptual model .

The Physical Model • Lowest level of abstraction – Describes the way data are saved on storage media such as disks or tapes • Software and hardware dependent – Requires database designers to have a detailed knowledge of the hardware and software used to implement database design • Physical independence – Can change the physical model without affecting the internal model .

Let’s explore some examples • • • • Outlook contacts Aspira Association MIS KidTrax GIS-GPS systems .

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and securing data.Components of DBMS: • Data dictionary: A data dictionary is a reserved space within a database which is used to store information about the database itself. processing. Data definition subsystem: create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database. and delete information in a database. Application generation subsystem: helps users develop transaction-intensive applications. change. Data manipulation subsystem: helps the user to add. Database Engine: The Database Engine is the core service for storing. Data administration subsystem: helps users manage the overall database environment. • • • • • .

g. duplication of information in different files • Difficulty in accessing data • Need to write a new program to carry out each new task • Data isolation — multiple files and formats • Integrity problems • Integrity constraints (e. database applications were built on top of file systems Drawbacks of using file systems to store data: • Data redundancy and inconsistency • Multiple file formats.Purpose of Database System In the early days. account balance > 0) become part of program code • Hard to add new constraints or change existing ones .

In conjunction with the highlevel interface to the data. • Concurrent Access and Crash Recovery A DBMS schedules concurrent access to the data in such manner that users can think of the data as being accessed by only one user at a time. centralizing the administration of data can offer significant improvements. • Reduced Application Development Time DBMS includes several important functions that are common to many applications accessing data in the DBMS. .ADVANTAGES OF A DBMS • Data Administration When any users share the data. DBMS also protects users from the effects of system failures. facilitates quick application development.

Disadvantages of DBMS • • • • • • • • • • Complexity Size Technical experts are required Cost of DBMS development Additional hardware costs Performance monitoring & maintenance Higher impact of a failure Centralization: That is use of the same program at a time by many user sometimes lead to loss of some data. Limited Statistical Capabilities: Can not perform sophisticated calculations Security issues .

create statistics.employess. 2) USAGES: creating exams plans.enter exam results. 2) APPLICATIONS: accounting. STOCK MARKET & LIBRARIES etc.accounts. .airplanes.students.booking.passenger.rooms.funds. BANKS 1) DATA: clients.creting flight schedules. transfer.exams.USES OF DATA BASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNIVERSITY 1) DATA: departments.risk management AIRLINES 1) DATA: flight. 2) APPLICATIONS: reservations.credits.build timetable.

.USE A DATABASE IF… 1)the information is a large amount that would become unmanageable in spreadsheet form and is related to a particular subject. pricing changes. 3)the information is subject to many changes (change of address.). 2)you want to maintain records for ongoing use. etc.

has been using Kerberos 4. . an international financial services firm. Morgan Stanley.AC Nielson & Morgan Stanley AC Nielson is one of the worlds leading market information providers. Since 1993. but they do it in over 100 countries. Another company that has utilized database technology in the new millennium is Morgan Stanley. not only does AC Nielson provide marketplace analysis and dynamics. Kerberos helped Morgan Stanley with solving the classic security problems of clear text passwords and single sign-on.

• Computerized Library Systems. • Super Market Product Inventory System. • Stock Trading Systems.APPLICATION USED IN REAL WORLD • Banking System and ATM's machines. • Credit Card/Credit Limit Check System . • Flight Reservation Systems.

• Distributed database management system. .Advanced DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Database management system is now broadly advanced into main two :• Network database management system.

Network database management system Through communication network a centralized database is adopted which is known as “Network DBMS”. • In a centralized DBMS. data base is stored at one site. • It takes more time and has less reliability. Example of Network database management system – Banking System and ATM's machines- .

Network database management system DB1 Site 1chennai Central Head site(mum) Site 2Delhi DB2 Communicati on Network Site 3hydrabad Site 4Bnaglor e .

Distributed Database management system Through communication network a database is decentralized ans so it is known as “Distributed DBMS”. Example of Distributed database management system – Supply chain system . • In a decentralized DBMS. • It takes less time and has more reliability. data base is stored at several site.

Distributed Database management system DB Site 1 DB Site 3 Communica tion Network Site 2 DB Site 4 DB .