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A TECHNICAL SEMINAR ON

POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT BY DVR


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Introduction:
Dynamic voltage restores (DVRs) are now becoming more established in industry to reduce the impact of voltage dips on sensitive loads.
Voltage dips are one of the most occurring power quality problems. They occur more often and cause severe problems and economical losses.

POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS:


Voltage sag: Voltage sags can occur at any instant of time, with amplitudes ranging from 10 90% and a duration lasting for half a cycle to one minute. voltage swell: Voltage swell is defined as an increase in r.m.s voltage or current at the power frequency for durations from 0.5 cycles to 1 min.

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF DVR:

EXPLANATION:
Injection/ Booster transformer: It is a specially designed transformer that attempts to limit the coupling of noise and transient energy from the primary side to the secondary side Harmonic Filter: The main task of harmonic filter is to keep the harmonic voltage content generated by the VSC to the permissible level.

Voltage Source Converter: A VSC is a power electronic system consists of a storage device and switching devices. which can generate a sinusoidal voltage at any required frequency, magnitude, and phase angle. In the DVR application, the VSC is used to temporarily replace the supply voltage or to generate the part of the supply voltage which is missing.

DC Charging Circuit: The first task is to charge the energy source after a sag compensation event. The second task is to maintain dc link voltage at the nominal dc link voltage.

Control and protection: The control mechanism of the general configuration typically consists of hardware with programmable logic. All protective functions of the DVR should be implemented in the software.

OPERATION OF DVR: The DVR has three modes of operation which are 1. protection mode 2. standby mode 3. injection/boost mode.

Protection mode:(VDVR<0) If the over current on the load side exceeds a permissible limit due to short circuit on the load or large inrush current, the DVR will be isolated from the systems by using the bypass switches (S2 and S3 will open) and supplying another path for current (S1 will be closed).

Standby Mode: (VDVR= 0) In the standby mode the booster transformers low voltage winding is shorted through the converter. No switching of semiconductors occurs in this mode of operation and the full load current will pass through the primary.

Injection/Boost Mode: (VDVR>0) In the Injection/Boost mode the DVR is injecting a compensating voltage through the booster transformer due to the detection of a disturbance in the supply voltage.

APPLICATIONS:

The DVR applications are mainly for sensitive loads that may be drastically affected by fluctuations in system voltage.

CONCLUSION: The DVR handled both balanced and unbalanced situations without any difficulties and injected the appropriate voltage component to correct rapidly any anomaly in the supply voltage to keep the load voltage balanced and constant at the nominal value.

REFERENCES
1. Ravi Kumar, S.V. and S. Siva Nagaraju, 2007. Power quality improvement using d-statcom and DVR. Int. J. Elect. Power Eng.,

2.John Newman, M., D. Grahame Holmes, J. Godsk Nielsen and F. Blaabjerg, 2003. A Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with selective harmonic compensation at medium voltage level. IEEE.
3.Stump, M.D., G.J. Kaene and F.K.S. Leong, 1998. Role of custom power products in enhancing power quality at industrial facilities. In: Conf. Rec. IEEE/EMPD. 4.John Newman, M., D. Grahame Holmes, J. Godsk Nielsen and F. Blaabjerg, 2003. A Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with selective harmonic compensation at medium voltage level. IEEE.