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TESTING

INTRODUCTION

• Tests on oil and gas wells are performed at various stages of

drilling, completion and production.

• The test objectives at each stage range from simple

identification of produced fluids and determination of reservoir

deliverability to the characterization of complex reservoir

features.

• Most well tests can be grouped either as productivity testing or

Pressure transient test.

INTRODUCTION

• Productivity well tests are conducted to:

• Identify produced fluids and determine their respective

volume ratios.

• Measure reservoir pressure and temperature.

• Obtain samples suitable for PVT analysis.

• Determine well deliverability.

• Evaluate completion efficiency.

• Characterize well damage.

• Evaluate work over or stimulation treatment.

• Pressure transient test seek to:

• Evaluate reservoir parameters.

• Characterize reservoir heterogeneities.

• Assess reservoir extent and geometry.

• Determine reservoir rock properties.

• Determine reservoir fluids properties.

DELIVERABILITY TESTS

• Deliverability tests are flow tests designed to measure the

production capabilities of a well under specific reservoir

conditions.

• Although these tests are used primarily for gas wells,

deliverability testing also is applicable to oil wells.

• A common productivity indicator obtained from these tests is

the absolute open-flow AOF potential.

• The AOF is the maximum rate at which a well could flow

against a theoretical atmospheric backpressure at the sand face.

• Another and possibly more important application of

deliverability testing is to generate a reservoir inflow

performance relationship IPR or gas backpressure curve.

• The IPR curve describes the relationship between surface

production rate and BHFP for a specific value of reservoir

pressure.

• It can be subdivided further more into:

• Single point test.

• Flow after flow test.

• Isochronal test.

• Modified isochronal test.

DELIVERABILITY TESTS

• Flow after flow test:

sometimes called gas backpressure

**four point tests, are
**

conducted by producing the well at series of different

stabilized flow rates and measuring the stabilized BHFP at the

sand face.

• Single point test:

is an attempt to overcome the limitation of long test times

required for the flow after flow tests in low permeability

formations.

Single point tests are conducted by flowing the well at a single

rate until the BHFP is stabilized.

DELIVERABILITY TESTS

• Isochronal test:

The isochronal test is a series of single-point well tests

developed to estimate stabilized deliverability characteristics .

The isochronal test is conducted by alternately producing and

then shutting in the well and allowing it to build up to the

average reservoir pressure before the next production period.

Pressures are measured at several times increments during

each flow period. The time at which the pressures are

measured should be the same relative to the beginning of each

flow period.

DELIVERABILITY TESTS

• Modified isochronal tests:

The time to build up to average reservoir pressure before flowing

for certain time may still be impractical, even after short flow

periods in an isochronal test.

Consequently, a modification of the isochronal test was

developed to shorten test times further.

The objective of the modified isochronal is to obtain the same

data as in an isochronal test without the sometimes lengthy shut-

in periods required to reach the average reservoir pressure in

well's drainage area.

The modified isochronal test is conducted like an isochronal test,

except that the shut-in periods are of equal duration but should

equal or exceed the length of the flow period. Because the well

doesn't buildup to average reservoir pressure after each flow

period.

DELIVERABILITY TESTS

• It refers to well tests in which we generate and measure

pressure changes with time. These tests allow us to evaluate

not only near-wellbore conditions but also the in-situ reservoir

properties beyond the region affected by drilling and

completion operations. It can be subdivided further more into:

•Single well test.

•Multi well test.

PRESSURE-TRANSIENT TESTS

• Single-well tests:

single-well tests involve only one well in which the pressure

response is measure against the following rate change.

From the measured pressure response, we can characterize

average properties in a portion or all of the drainage area of the

tested well.

A common single-well test, a pressure buildup test, is conducted

by first stabilizing a producing well at some fixed rate, placing a

bottom hole pressure (BHP) measuring device in the well, and

shutting in the well. Following shut-in, the BHP builds up as a

function of time, and the rate of pressure build up is used to

estimate well and formation properties.

From a pressure-buildup test, we can estimate average reservoir

pressure and permeability in the well's drainage area and the

properties of the region immediately adjacent to wellbore.

PRESSURE-TRANSIENT TESTS

• Multi well tests:

When the flow rate is changed in one well and the pressure

response is measured in one or more other wells the test is called

a multiwall test.

Multi well tests are designed to determine properties in region

centered along a line connecting pairs of wells and therefore are

more sensitive to directional variations of reservoir properties,

such as permeability.

In addition these tests can determine the presence or lack of

communication between two points in the reservoir.

The basic concept in multi well test is either to produce from or

to inject into one well, the active well, and observe the pressure

response I one or more offset wells, or observation wells. From

these data, we can estimate both permeability and porosity in the

drainage area of the wells and can quantify some reservoir

anisotropies.

PRESSURE-TRANSIENT TESTS

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• Well Deliverability or Capacity :

The stabilized flow capacity or deliverability of a gas well is

required for planning the operation of any gas field.

The most common method for determining gas well

deliverability is called multipoint testing, in which a well is

produced at several different flow rate and from measured flow

rates and well pressures, an inflow performance equation can be

evaluated.

Where, C and n are constant can be calculated from well tests.

2 2 2 '

) (

wf e sc

p p c q ÷ =

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• In most cases, the value of n obtained from well tests will fall

between 0.5 and 1.0. If values for the flow coefficient and

exponent n can be determined, flow rate corresponding to any

value of well bore flowing pressure can be calculated and an

inflow performance curve can be constructed.

A parameter commonly used to characterize or compare gas

wells is the flow rate that would occur if bottom hole flowing

pressure could be brought to zero.

This called the absolute open flow potential, AOF

Once a value of n has been determined, the value of C can be

calculated by using data from one of the tests.

c

n

q

n

p p

sc wf e

log

1

log

1

) log(

2 2 '

÷ = ÷

n

wf e

sc

p p

q

c

) (

2 2 '

÷

=

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• There are several ways for well test called flow after flow test or

isochronal test.

• Flow-After- Flow Test:

A flow-after-flow starts from a shut in condition. The well is

opened at a particular choke size and is not distributed until the

flow rate and well bore flowing pressure stabilize.

This may require a considerable amount of time, depending on

reservoir permeability.

A well is usually considered to be stabilized if the pressure does

not change over 15 minute intervals.

Once stabilization reached the standard flow rate and well bore

flowing pressure are measured, the rate is changed, and

procedure repeated for several flow rates, usually four.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

Flow-After-Flow tests

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• Isochronal Test:

The isochronal test, or equal time, test is based on the theory that

at equal flow times the same volume of the reservoir is affected

regardless of flow rate.

The isochronal test was proposed as a means of determining

deliverability in tight wells that requires along period to reached

stabilization.

At least one stabilized point is still required to evaluate the

coefficient C.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• The procedure for conducting isochronal test is:

1. Starting at a shut in condition, open the well at a particular

choke size for a period of time. Measure the standard flow rate

and well bore flowing pressure at specific times for this choke

size.

2. Shut the well in until the well returns to average reservoir

pressure.

3. Open the well on a larger choke size and measure the standard

flow rate and the flowing well bore pressure at the time interval

as in step 1

4. Shut the well in until the well returns to average Reservoir

pressure.

5. Repeat for several choke sizes, usually four.

6. On the last choke size, allow the well to flow until stabilized

condition is reached.

This may require several hours or even days, but only one has to

be flowed for a long period as compared to all rates for flow after

flow testing.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

Isochronal test

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• The test is analyzed by plotting (p

e

′2

− p

wf

2

)versus

on log-log

paper for each flow time at which data were measured. This will

produce one straight line for flow time; the slopes of each will be

equal. The slope allows determination of exponent n, while the

flow coefficient C can be determined by using the stabilized or

extended flow rate. By determining C, n the inflow performance

curve can be created.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

well inflow performance

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• Pressure Transient Testing:

Methods have been presented for determining the stabilized

deliverability or inflow performance of a gas well for use in

planning equipment purchases and other field development

procedures.

Much useful reservoir information can be obtained from various

types of unsteady-state or transient gas well tests.

Information that can be obtained from transient test includes

permeability, skin factor, and turbulence coefficient and average

reservoir pressure.

The most common transient tests are drawdown tests and build

up tests. Essentially the same information can be obtained from

each.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• Pressure Drawdown Test:

Several important reservoir parameters can be obtained by

flowing a well at constant rate and measuring flowing well bore

pressures as a function in time this called drawdown test.

Some of the reservoir parameter which may obtain from

drawdown testing are flow capacity

ℎ

, skin factor S, and

turbulence coefficient D.

A drawdown test begins from a shut-in condition and a constant

rate is maintained while pressure is measured constantly.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

Pressure Drawdown test

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• The equation of transient flow may be written including

formation damage and turbulence effect as,

△

=

(0.5(

)+0.809)+S'

Where, S'=S+D

S=skin factor

D= turbulence coefficient.

In terms of real variable common logs the logs, the transient flow

equation becomes,

(

¸

(

¸

+ ÷ + = ÷

'

2 ' '

' '

2 2

869 . 0 23 . 3 log log

1637

S

r C

k

t

k

q T Z

p p

w h

sc

wf i

|µ

µ

WELL TEST EQUATIONS

• Pressure Build up Testing:

If the effects well bore storage can be determined, much useful

information can be obtained.

This information includes permeability K, apparent skin factor, S'

and average reservoir pressure.

It consists of flowing the well at a constant rate

, for a period

of time, shutting the well in △t, and measuring the wellbore

pressures increase with shut in time △t. The method was

extended to allow determination of average reservoir pressure.

The transient flow equation:

t

t t

k

q T Z

p p

h

sc

ws i

A

A +

= ÷ log

1637

' '

2 2

µ

INTRODUCTION

• Tests on oil and gas wells are performed at various stages of drilling, completion and production. • The test objectives at each stage range from simple identification of produced fluids and determination of reservoir deliverability to the characterization of complex reservoir features. • Most well tests can be grouped either as productivity testing or Pressure transient test.

• Assess reservoir extent and geometry. • Obtain samples suitable for PVT analysis. • Determine reservoir rock properties. . • Measure reservoir pressure and temperature. • Characterize reservoir heterogeneities. • Determine reservoir fluids properties. • Determine well deliverability. • Characterize well damage.INTRODUCTION • Productivity well tests are conducted to: • Identify produced fluids and determine their respective volume ratios. • Evaluate work over or stimulation treatment. • Pressure transient test seek to: • Evaluate reservoir parameters. • Evaluate completion efficiency.

• The AOF is the maximum rate at which a well could flow against a theoretical atmospheric backpressure at the sand face. . deliverability testing also is applicable to oil wells.DELIVERABILITY TESTS • Deliverability tests are flow tests designed to measure the production capabilities of a well under specific reservoir conditions. • A common productivity indicator obtained from these tests is the absolute open-flow AOF potential. • Although these tests are used primarily for gas wells.

• It can be subdivided further more into: • Single point test. • The IPR curve describes the relationship between surface production rate and BHFP for a specific value of reservoir pressure. • Flow after flow test.DELIVERABILITY TESTS • Another and possibly more important application of deliverability testing is to generate a reservoir inflow performance relationship IPR or gas backpressure curve. • Isochronal test. • Modified isochronal test. .

• Single point test: is an attempt to overcome the limitation of long test times required for the flow after flow tests in low permeability formations. .DELIVERABILITY TESTS • Flow after flow test: sometimes called gas backpressure 𝑝𝑟 four point tests. Single point tests are conducted by flowing the well at a single rate until the BHFP is stabilized. are conducted by producing the well at series of different stabilized flow rates and measuring the stabilized BHFP at the sand face.

The isochronal test is conducted by alternately producing and then shutting in the well and allowing it to build up to the average reservoir pressure before the next production period. Pressures are measured at several times increments during each flow period. The time at which the pressures are measured should be the same relative to the beginning of each flow period.DELIVERABILITY TESTS • Isochronal test: The isochronal test is a series of single-point well tests developed to estimate stabilized deliverability characteristics . .

a modification of the isochronal test was developed to shorten test times further. even after short flow periods in an isochronal test. The objective of the modified isochronal is to obtain the same data as in an isochronal test without the sometimes lengthy shutin periods required to reach the average reservoir pressure in well's drainage area. except that the shut-in periods are of equal duration but should equal or exceed the length of the flow period. Consequently.DELIVERABILITY TESTS • Modified isochronal tests: The time to build up to average reservoir pressure before flowing for certain time may still be impractical. Because the well doesn't buildup to average reservoir pressure after each flow period. The modified isochronal test is conducted like an isochronal test. .

These tests allow us to evaluate not only near-wellbore conditions but also the in-situ reservoir properties beyond the region affected by drilling and completion operations.PRESSURE-TRANSIENT TESTS • It refers to well tests in which we generate and measure pressure changes with time. It can be subdivided further more into: •Single well test. . •Multi well test.

and the rate of pressure build up is used to estimate well and formation properties. we can characterize average properties in a portion or all of the drainage area of the tested well. a pressure buildup test. A common single-well test. and shutting in the well. the BHP builds up as a function of time. . From a pressure-buildup test. Following shut-in. is conducted by first stabilizing a producing well at some fixed rate. we can estimate average reservoir pressure and permeability in the well's drainage area and the properties of the region immediately adjacent to wellbore. From the measured pressure response. placing a bottom hole pressure (BHP) measuring device in the well.PRESSURE-TRANSIENT TESTS • Single-well tests: single-well tests involve only one well in which the pressure response is measure against the following rate change.

The basic concept in multi well test is either to produce from or to inject into one well. such as permeability. we can estimate both permeability and porosity in the drainage area of the wells and can quantify some reservoir anisotropies. or observation wells. From these data.PRESSURE-TRANSIENT TESTS • Multi well tests: When the flow rate is changed in one well and the pressure response is measured in one or more other wells the test is called a multiwall test. . Multi well tests are designed to determine properties in region centered along a line connecting pairs of wells and therefore are more sensitive to directional variations of reservoir properties. In addition these tests can determine the presence or lack of communication between two points in the reservoir. the active well. and observe the pressure response I one or more offset wells.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS • Well Deliverability or Capacity : The stabilized flow capacity or deliverability of a gas well is required for planning the operation of any gas field. an inflow performance equation can be evaluated. in which a well is produced at several different flow rate and from measured flow rates and well pressures. The most common method for determining gas well deliverability is called multipoint testing. . qsc c( p p ) '2 e 2 wf 2 Where. C and n are constant can be calculated from well tests.

This called the absolute open flow potential. flow rate corresponding to any value of well bore flowing pressure can be calculated and an inflow performance curve can be constructed. the value of n obtained from well tests will fall between 0. the value of C can be calculated by using data from one of the tests. qsc c '2 2 ( pe pwf ) n .0.5 and 1.WELL TEST EQUATIONS • In most cases. A parameter commonly used to characterize or compare gas wells is the flow rate that would occur if bottom hole flowing pressure could be brought to zero. If values for the flow coefficient and exponent n can be determined. AOF 1 1 log( p p ) log qsc log c n n '2 e 2 wf Once a value of n has been determined.

The well is opened at a particular choke size and is not distributed until the flow rate and well bore flowing pressure stabilize. the rate is changed. and procedure repeated for several flow rates. . depending on reservoir permeability. • Flow-After. Once stabilization reached the standard flow rate and well bore flowing pressure are measured. A well is usually considered to be stabilized if the pressure does not change over 15 minute intervals.Flow Test: A flow-after-flow starts from a shut in condition. This may require a considerable amount of time.WELL TEST EQUATIONS • There are several ways for well test called flow after flow test or isochronal test. usually four.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS Flow-After-Flow tests .

The isochronal test was proposed as a means of determining deliverability in tight wells that requires along period to reached stabilization. At least one stabilized point is still required to evaluate the coefficient C.WELL TEST EQUATIONS • Isochronal Test: The isochronal test. or equal time. . test is based on the theory that at equal flow times the same volume of the reservoir is affected regardless of flow rate.

Measure the standard flow rate and well bore flowing pressure at specific times for this choke size. open the well at a particular choke size for a period of time. 6. 5. Starting at a shut in condition. 3. . Repeat for several choke sizes.WELL TEST EQUATIONS • The procedure for conducting isochronal test is: 1. Open the well on a larger choke size and measure the standard flow rate and the flowing well bore pressure at the time interval as in step 1 4. This may require several hours or even days. usually four. Shut the well in until the well returns to average reservoir pressure. allow the well to flow until stabilized condition is reached. On the last choke size. Shut the well in until the well returns to average Reservoir pressure. 2. but only one has to be flowed for a long period as compared to all rates for flow after flow testing.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS Isochronal test .

while the flow coefficient C can be determined by using the stabilized or extended flow rate. n the inflow performance curve can be created. By determining C. The slope allows determination of exponent n. .WELL TEST EQUATIONS • The test is analyzed by plotting (p′2 − p2 )versus 𝑞𝑠𝑐 on log-log e wf paper for each flow time at which data were measured. the slopes of each will be equal. This will produce one straight line for flow time.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS well inflow performance .

and turbulence coefficient and average reservoir pressure. The most common transient tests are drawdown tests and build up tests. . Essentially the same information can be obtained from each. Information that can be obtained from transient test includes permeability.WELL TEST EQUATIONS • Pressure Transient Testing: Methods have been presented for determining the stabilized deliverability or inflow performance of a gas well for use in planning equipment purchases and other field development procedures. Much useful reservoir information can be obtained from various types of unsteady-state or transient gas well tests. skin factor.

and turbulence coefficient D. Some of the reservoir parameter which may obtain from drawdown testing are flow capacity 𝑘ℎ . skin factor S. .WELL TEST EQUATIONS • Pressure Drawdown Test: Several important reservoir parameters can be obtained by flowing a well at constant rate and measuring flowing well bore pressures as a function in time this called drawdown test. A drawdown test begins from a shut-in condition and a constant rate is maintained while pressure is measured constantly.

WELL TEST EQUATIONS Pressure Drawdown test .

S'=S+D 𝑞𝑠𝑐 S=skin factor D= turbulence coefficient. the transient flow equation becomes.WELL TEST EQUATIONS • The equation of transient flow may be written including formation damage and turbulence effect as.23 0. In terms of real variable common logs the logs. △ 𝑝𝐷= (0.869 S C rw .809)+S' Where.5(𝑡𝐷 )+0. p p 2 i 2 wf 1637 Z 'T ' qsc kh k ' log t log ' ' 2 3.

for a period of time. The transient flow equation: 1637 Z 'T ' qsc t t 2 2 pi pws log kh t . It consists of flowing the well at a constant rate 𝑞𝑠𝑐 . shutting the well in △t. This information includes permeability K. and measuring the wellbore pressures increase with shut in time △t. much useful information can be obtained. S' and average reservoir pressure. The method was extended to allow determination of average reservoir pressure.WELL TEST EQUATIONS • Pressure Build up Testing: If the effects well bore storage can be determined. apparent skin factor.

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