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Introduction to control System

Dr. V. Sugumaran

Control System An example

Tachometer reading = 98 rpm Desired reading = 100 rpm. Error = [desired reading] ~ [tachometer reading] = 2 rpm.

Control System
System is a collection of objects connected together to serve an objective. Control system is that means by which any parameter in a machine, mechanism or equipment can be maintained or altered in accordance with the desired manner.

Elements of control System

Controlled variable
It is the actual variable being monitored and maintained at a desired value. Also called as process variable. Eg:
Temperature, pressure Position, Velocity.

Measured variable
The condition of the controlled variable at specific point in time is referred to as measured variable.

Measurement Device
It senses the measured variable and produces an output signal that represents the status of the controlled variable. Also called as detector, transducer and sensor.

Feedback Signal
The output of the measurement device . Other terms are measured values, measurement signal Position feedback, velocity feedback.

Set point
It is the prescribed input value applied to the loop that indicates the desired condition of the controlled variable. Manual / Automatic / Programmable Other terms command, reference.

Error detector
It compares the set point to the feedback signal and produces an output signal that is proportional to the difference between them. Other terms comparator, comparer and summing junction

Error signal
It is the output of the error detector Other terms difference signal, deviation. 0 when feedback matches setpoint

It receives the error signal (for closed loop control) as its input, and develops an output signal that causes the controlled variable to become the values specified by the set point. It is the brain of the system.

It is a device that physically alters some type of energy or fuel supply, causing the controlled variable to match the desired set point. It is muscle of the system Other terms final control element or final correcting device.

Manipulated variable
The fuel or energy that is physically altered by the actuator is referred to as manipulated variables.

A disturbance is a factor that upsets the manufacturing process being performed, causing a change in the controlled variable.

The term loop is derived from the fact that, once command signal is entered, it travels around the loop until equilibrium is restored.

Feedback control
The basic concept of the feedback control is that an error must exist before some corrective action can be made.

Error - possibilities
The set point is changed A disturbance appears The load demand varies

Limitations feedback control

Occurrence of large magnitude disturbances Long delays in dynamic response of the controlled loop

Feed Forward control

Feed forward control is to prevent error from occurring unlike feedback control which takes corrective action after an error develops.

Limitations - Feed Forward control

Immeasurable disturbances such as worn flow valve, a sensor out of tolerance, an inexact mathematical calculations leads to unacceptable unbalance state.

Manually controlled systems Automatic control systems Open-loop control systems Closed loop control systems Undamped systems Under damped systems Critically damped systems Over damped systems

Linear control systems Non-linear control systems First order control systems Second order control systems Third order control systems
Single input single output control systems (SISO) Multi-input single output control systems (MISO) Multi-input multi-output control systems (MIMO)

Motion control system Process control system On-off control systems Discrete point control systems Continuous control systems

Open Loop systems

Also called as manual control system. Eg: Car being controlled by a driver

Closed loop system

Control systems which continuously monitors the parameters of interest and does self correcting action (through feedback) for a long period of time without interruption. Eg: Temperature control in iron box

Manual control system vs Automatic control system

human in control loop is undesirable due
1. Fast response of system 2. Loop rapid to follow 3. Skill required is very high

Open-loop control systems Vs Closed loop control systems

OPEN LOOP CONTROL SYSTEMS 1. It is simple and economical 2. They consume less power 3. Inaccurate and unreliable 4. The output variations due to

CLOSED CONTROL SYSTEMS 1. It is complex and costly 2. They consume more power 3. Accurate and reliable








disturbances are not corrected automatically. 5. There is no feedback in open loop systems

disturbances are automatically corrected 5. There is a feedback in closed loop systems

6. Stability is not a major problem, as there is no6. Stability is major problem and needs more skill feed back to design a closed loop systems.

Linear control systems Vs Non-linear control systems

principle of superposition the response produced by the simultaneous application of two different forcing functions is equal to the sum of the two individual responses For non-linear control system it is not valid

Motion Control
A motion control system is an automatic control system that controls the physical motion or position of an object. Eg: Industrial Robot performing welding, assembly operations CNC machine tool, printing press, office copier, packaging equipment, SMD mounting machine etc., Also called Servos or servo mechanisms

Examples Motion Control

CNC Machine tool equipment Printing press Industrial robot, which performs welding and other assembly operations Office copier, Printer Packaging equipment Surface Mounting Devices (SMD) that place components onto a printed circuit board.

Characteristics of MCS
It controls the position, speed, acceleration or deceleration of a mechanical object. The motion or position of the object being controlled is measured. It responds to input commands in fraction of seconds.

Process Control
In process control one or more variables are regulated to compensate any outside disturbance that changes the variable during manufacturing of a product. Response time is typically few seconds to several minutes. Divided into batch and continuous.

Batch process
It is a sequence of times operations executed on the product being manufactured. It is also known as sequential process. Eg:Machine to produce cookies, food industries, petroleum, soap, medicinie.

Cookie Machine
Water Pow.milk Egg Sugar Nuts Vanilla Choc.chip


Mixing Vat Outlet obj Conveyor belt Oven

Continuous process
In continuous process, one or more operations are performed as the product is being passed through a process Raw materials are continuously entering and leaving each process set up. Eg: Producing paper, waste water treatment, nuclear power production, oil refining, natural gas distribution etc.,

Process control sustaining the constant condition of a parameter such as level, pressure, flow rate. Motion control To follow the changes in the desired input signal closely.

Time variant Vs Timeinvariant control systems

The output characteristics not change with time and it can be represented by constant co-efficient differential equations (Time invariant) Time Variant -> co-efficients of its differential equations are functions of time

Fan without regulator

Discrete point
Fan with regulator marked 1,2,3,

Continuous control systems

Fan with potentiometer based regulator



G Gain = 1 + GH

Automatic load position control
(Angular position)

e = i o

Automatic water level control

Thank You