Welcome to Textual linguistics

Danijela Majstorovic, PhD

investigating particular parameters Analysing relate text to context natural language role in social practices and social change contextdependent Language focus on verbal language empirical data in Use performance vs competence .

What is a text? an instance of language use verbal or non-verbal (e.g.g. newspaper article. sign language) written or spoken (e. interview) coherent as a unit of different length (novel vs parking sign) pointing to something beyond itself linguistics vs semiotics .

referendum demographic reports. speeches fax/website claiming responsibility. comments letter of application.Q: Why do texts matter? A: Because issues matter! And issues involve texts. TV debate. marking guidelines. televised threats forms. interviews written task. EU constitution pensions terrorism document. interview conversati ons media coverage university admission taking exams finding a job .

Relating texts and their uses (Fairclough 1989) Production Distribution Interpretation Social context Interaction Text .

body posture) What elements and layout do we find in visual texts? .Analysing (spoken) text: some parameters What greetings and closings are used? Turn-taking: Who asks and who answers questions? Who talks and who listens? Who is interrupted or ignored? How do people use language to be polite? What role does non-verbal communication play? (gesture. facial expression.

“insurgents”. "banks are being forced to make staff redundant") What are their actions? What actions are made into nouns (nominalised)? ("Deutsche Bank has to make enforced redundancies") .Analysing text: some parameters (cont.) Lexis and clause structure: What kind of vocabulary is used? ("freedom fighters”. "terrorists") What metaphoric expressions are used? What collocations (word partnerships) do we find? ("against euro federalism" vs "embrace federalism") Who is (not) referred to/Who are the actors? ("workers will be made redundant".

) Evaluation (explicit and implicit): through attribution ("the ideal candidate" vs "hardly a suitable applicant") through collocations ("against euro federalism" vs "embrace federalism") Modality (degree of certainty or obligation): through modal verbs ("workers will be made redundant".Analysing text: some parameters (cont. "Deutsche Bank has to make enforced redundancies") through attribution ("a likely takeover target") through other markers of modality ("culture also appears to play a role") .

) Intertextuality and reported speech: "BT said it would cut staff numbers" > press release. WA" Implicature (what writers/speakers merely imply): “I could do with some coffee" .Analysing text: some parameters (cont. press briefing Presupposition (what writers/speakers assume their readers to know): "a certain software company in Redmond.

a greeting will be followed by a greeting ) What assumptions are made about roles in the interaction (e.Analysing interaction: some parameters What assumptions are made about verbal interaction? (e. chair opening a meeting)? What kinds of texts and interactions do we take for granted? What practices are related to verbal interaction: reading a newspaper going to the doctor attending a lecture watching TV .g.g.

e. and relations between. age etc. national and ethnic identities. gender.Analysing social context: some parameters What social context. i. distribution and reception of texts? .) Are identities and relations stable or changing? Who owns and who controls the production. what identities of. people interacting are relevant? (class. profession.

role of the BBC .52 am. 21 April 2004) routines of radio listening news value. reporter interviewing Watkins "Shell and corporate responsibility" (Today programme.7.Fairclough's model applied Production Distribution Interpretation corporate scandals and increasing pressure on companies to act responsibly presenter reporting the story and quoting emails.

"embrace financial transparency") . "there's great ammunition for plaintiffs") What collocations (word partnerships) do we find? ("Enron scandal".Analysing text: example Turn-taking: interview format Lexis and clause structure: What kind of vocabulary is used? ("scandal/s") Metaphors: WAR metaphor ("your employees are your best line of defence".

Analysing text: example (cont. "it's very problematic") through collocations ("accounting scandals") . "employees". "the board". "top executives".) Who is (not) referred to/Who are the actors? ("senior management". "you stop it") What actions are made into nouns (nominalised)? ("exchange of emails") Evaluation (explicit and implicit): through attribution ("my actions were too little too late". "you") What are their actions? ("meet with executives".

"you've got to do more") through other markers of modality ("executives that I believe are on Shell's board") Intertextuality and reported speech: quoted emails > internal company discourse Presupposition (what writers/speakers assume their readers to know): what the problems at Shell are about the Enron scandal company hierarchy . "needs to be in the know".) Modality (degree of certainty or obligation): through modal verbs ("might implode".Analysing text: example (cont. "should be putting in place". "have to come from the top".

Analysing interaction: example What assumptions are made about roles in the interaction: Why does the reporter interview the corporate representative? How is the audience acknowledged? What kinds of texts and interactions do we take for granted: How do we expect a BBC presenter to speak? What do we expect to follow a question? What practices are related to the interaction: What form do interviews take? Who listens to business news on a radio programme at 7.52 am? .

i. distribution and reception of texts? . and relations between. people interacting are relevant? BBC Shell/Enron audience Are identities and relations stable or changing? Who owns and who controls the production.Analysing social context: example What social context.e. what identities of.

How you should analyse a text: analyse the text on several levels go beyond mere description. relate the text to its context remember that the link between text and social context is mediated by interaction distinguish between the text and what you think its producer is like compare texts with regard to genres and discourses ask what people say. how they say it and why they say it the way they do .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful