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. Try to be in the first group; there is less competition there.
- Indira Gandhi
Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus
Check the following ideas and say if you agree or disagree with them: Sex and gender are terms that relate to the same thing and may be used interchangeably; Men and women who share the same language use it in different ways; Difference in language use may be attributed to language structure; and Sexism in language occurs due to sexist language users.
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Words to Ponder
Sissy, tomboy Pasteurization, maudlin Vixen, cat, bunny, old bat Jo, Kelly, Teri, Shawn, Toni, Sam Rose, Lily, Ivy, Daisy, Iris, Petunia Sugar, honey, cookie, cheesecake
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• In the chicken metaphors, a young girl is a chick. When she gets old enough she marries and soon begins feeling cooped up. To relive the boredom she goes to hen parties and cackles with her friends. Eventually she has her brood, begins to henpeck her husband, and finally turns into an old biddy.
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SEX vs. GENDER
•Sex is biologically determined whereas gender is a sexual construct involving the whole gamut of genetic, psychological, social and cultural differences between males and females.
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.Wodak (1997) • „what it means to be a woman or to be a man changes from one generation to the next and… varies between different racialized. ethnic.brainybetty.Elsewhere (1997) 4/7/2012 template from www.com copyright 2006 6 . and religious groups.What is GENDER? • „… is not a pool of attributes “possessed” by a person. but… something a person “does.”‟ .
What is GENDER? • Gender is also something we cannot avoid. 4/7/2012 template from www.com copyright 2006 7 .brainybetty. • The force of gender categories in society makes it impossible not to behave in a way that brings out gendered behaviors in others. with each society doing that ordering differently. it is a part of the way in which societies are ordered around us.
com copyright 2006 8 .The Differences • genetic make-up • physical attributes • level of maturity • verbal skills • different socialization practices life expectancy voice quality academic performance 4/7/2012 template from www.brainybetty.
Describing Women‟s Speech • Men‟s speech usually provides the norm against which women‟s speech is judged. idle. cultivated. deficient. euphemistic.brainybetty. • Trivial. a bit more imprecise. illogical. or stylish – even less profane than men‟s speech 4/7/2012 template from www.com copyright 2006 9 . gossip-laden. corrupt.
Describing Women‟s Speech • Women conform more closely than men to sociolinguistic norms that are overtly prescribed. but conform less than men when they are not to read that men are less conforming than women with stable linguistic variables. and more conforming when change is in progress within a linguistic system 4/7/2012 template from www.brainybetty.com copyright 2006 10 .
Linguistic Literature on Gender-Linked Differences in Language Use Phonology Morphology and Vocabulary Grammatical Gender System Word Choice Use Paralinguistic Systems .
Linguistic Literature on GenderLinked Differences in Pronunciation • Carib Indians Carib men + Arawak women = different languages for men and women • Gros Ventre palatalized velar stops for women (kjatsa) vs.com copyright 2006 12 .brainybetty. /tj/ and /dj/ for men 4/7/2012 template from www. palatalized dental stops for men (djatsa) • Yukaghir /ts/ and /dz/ for women and children vs.
com copyright 2006 13 . women. children and the uneducated do not do this • Chukchi men drop /n/ and /t/ when they occur between vowels (nitvaqenat for female.Linguistic Literature on GenderLinked Differences in Pronunciation • Bengali men substitute /l/ for initial /n/. nitvaqaat for male) • Montreal women drop /l/ in the pronouns il and elle 4/7/2012 template from www.brainybetty.
com copyright 2006 14 .Linguistic Literature on GenderLinked Differences in Pronunciation • Schoolgirls in Scotland pronounce the t in words like water and got more often than schoolboys • Koasati men often pronounce an s at the end of verbs but women did not (lakaw. lakaws) 4/7/2012 template from www.brainybetty.
aquamarine. and sweet. divine.Gender-Linked Differences in Morphology and Vocabulary • Women use color words like mauve. charming. words and expressions such as good. lavender. adorable.com copyright 2006 15 . (Lakoff 1973) • Women are also said to have their own vocabulary for emphasizing certain effects on them. 4/7/2012 template from www. divine. and magenta. precious. exquisite. lovely. beige. darling.brainybetty. and fantastic. and adjectives such as adorable. such fun. lovely.
e. actor-actress. Hence. there is an immense insistence to use neutral words in addressing both genders (chairperson.g.Gender-Linked Differences in Morphology and Vocabulary English language makes certain distinctions of a gender-based kind. salesclerk and actor) 4/7/2012 template from www. Distinctions are reinforced by entrenched patterns of usage and semantic development.com copyright 2006 16 . waiter-waitress and master-mistress.brainybetty. letter carrier.
brainybetty.com copyright 2006 17 .Gender-Linked Differences in Morphology and Vocabulary 4/7/2012 template from www.
brainybetty.com copyright 2006 18 .Gender-Linked Differences in Morphology and Vocabulary • However… “attitudes toward gender equality did not match language usage.Romaine (1999) 4/7/2012 template from www.” . Those who have adopted more gender-inclusive language did not necessarily have a more liberal view of gender inequities in language.
Sexism in Language based on the Grammatical Gender System • English (he-she-it) • French and German (le-la.brainybetty. der-die-das) Grammatical Gender Systems Masculine Feminine Neuter Gender Differences Male Female Neither 4/7/2012 template from www.com copyright 2006 19 .
com copyright 2006 20 .Sexism in Language based on the Grammatical Gender System • “ideological factors in the form of cultural beliefs about women … enter into gender assignment in [grammatical] systems that are supposedly purely formal and arbitrary.” .brainybetty.Romaine (1999) 4/7/2012 template from www.
such connections sometimes create problems in finding the right pronoun: Everybody should hand in their papers in five minutes . 4/7/2012 template from www. Persian. Japanese. Chinese. it is the people who use languages who are or who are not sexist.com copyright 2006 21 . • So. and Turkish do not make the kinds of gender distinctions English makes through its system of pronouns. No person in his right mind would do that.Sexism in Language based on the Grammatical Gender System • In English.brainybetty.
com copyright 2006 22 .brainybetty.Sexism in Language based on Word Choice Japanese • Women – sentence-final particle -ne/-wa • Men – refer to themselves as boku/ ore • Women – refer to themselves as watasi/atasi 4/7/2012 template from www.
-mak 4/7/2012 template from www.com copyright 2006 23 .Sexism in Language based on Word Choice Thai • Women – refer to themselves as dichan • Men – refer to themselves as phom • Women – emphasize action by repeating the verb • Men – emphasize action by adding a descriptive word.brainybetty.
Sexism in Language based on Each Gender‟s Use Dyirbal • Has a special language which is genderdifferentiated in a novel way • Guwal (everyday language) is used by both genders • Men.brainybetty.com copyright 2006 24 . in the presence of their mother-in-law. speak Dyalnuy. and women. 4/7/2012 template from www. in the presence of their fatherin-law.
• Children are brought up in women‟s dialect with boys required to shift to men‟s dialect as they are initiated to manhood.com copyright 2006 25 . taboo but that gender is apparently nearly always the female gender. i. • One variety may be forbidden to one another.e..Sexism in Language based on Each Gender‟s Use Yanyuwa • Men use one dialect among themselves and women use the other. 4/7/2012 template from www.brainybetty.
and may answer a question with a statement that employs the rising intonation pattern usually associated with a question.brainybetty. • Women are less sure of themselves than men do and usually use tag questions as sign of uncertainty and insecurity.Sexism in Language based on Each Gender‟s Use • Brend (1975) claims that the intonation patterns of men and women vary.com copyright 2006 26 . • Women tend to use certain patterns associated with surprise and politeness. 4/7/2012 template from www.
4/7/2012 template from www. and addressed differently from men. if not by first names.com copyright 2006 27 . by such terms as lady.brainybetty. or. • Requires women to appear to be submissive to men . • Women are more likely than men to be addressed by their first names when everything else is equal.Sexism in Language based on Each Gender‟s Paralinguistic Systems • Women and men may have different paralinguistic systems and move and gesture differently. or dear. and even baby or babe. • Women are also often to be named. miss. title.
use them in different circumstances or are judged differently for using them.Sexism in Language based on Each Gender‟s Paralinguistic Systems Women are said not to employ the profanities and obscenities men use. or. if they do. Women are also sometimes required to be silent in situations in which men may speak.brainybetty.com copyright 2006 28 . 4/7/2012 template from www.
• Women are stylistically more flexible than men. while (especially in formal contexts) men tend to interact in ways which will maintain and increase their power and status.com copyright 2006 29 .Homes‟ Sociolinguistic Universal Tendencies (1998) • Women and men develop different patterns of language use. • Women tend to use linguistic devices that stress solidarity more often than men do. 4/7/2012 template from www. • Women tend to focus on the affective functions of an interaction more often than men do.brainybetty. • Women tend to interact in ways which will maintain and increase solidarity.
com copyright 2006 30 .brainybetty.Observed Topics of Each Gender‟s Talk •Men speak more than women do. Men‟s Talk •competition •teasing •sports •aggression •doing things Women‟s Talk •self •feelings •affiliation •home •family 4/7/2012 template from www.
• They are said to develop solidarity with others in order to maintain social relationships.Purposes of Talk for Each Gender • Women are also reported to use more polite forms and more compliments than men.com copyright 2006 31 .brainybetty. • Men use talk to get things done. 4/7/2012 template from www.
.Politeness in Across-Gender Conversation Mills (2003) contests the view that women are more polite than men.com copyright 2006 32 .brainybetty. • Politeness is clearly a resource tool which interactants use to structure their relations with others. it is rather a set of practices or strategies which communities of practice develop. and they are able to be self-reflexive about their own and others‟ use of politeness and impoliteness. affirm. and contest. 4/7/2012 template from www. • Politeness is not a property of utterances.
and they are expected to talk. and do talk. for example.com copyright 2006 33 . women are expected to talk simply in order to keep interaction flowing smoothly and to show goodwill toward others.brainybetty.What Women Brings in the Talk… James Drakich (1993) • Women are expected to use and do use to a greater extent than men to serve the function of establishing and maintaining personal relationships. about personal feelings and other socioemotional matters relevant to interpersonal relationships to a greater extent than men… 4/7/2012 template from www.
4/7/2012 template from www. men frequently interrupt women but women much less frequently interrupt men.com copyright 2006 34 . mostly for cooperative and rapport-building ends.What Men Brings in the Talk… James and Clarke (1993) • In cross-gender conversations.brainybetty.
encourage others to speak.com copyright 2006 35 .brainybetty. use more instances of you and we. use more back-channeling signals like mhmm to encourage others to continue speaking.What Women Brings in the Talk… • Women tend to ask more questions than men. and do not protest as much as men when they are interrupted. 4/7/2012 template from www.
4/7/2012 template from www. try to control what topics are discussed. dispute.What Men Brings in the Talk… •Men interrupt more. challenge. and ignore more.com copyright 2006 36 .brainybetty. and are inclined to make categorical statements.
• Social organization is best perceived as some kind of hierarchical set of power relationships. • Men and women are social beings who have learned to act in certain ways. Three Claims • Men and women are biologically different.brainybetty.com copyright 2006 37 .Possible Explanations to Gender-Linked Differences Language can be sexist. 4/7/2012 template from www.
Men and women are biologically different.com copyright 2006 38 . • Men are innately predisposed to independence and to vertical relationships. • Women are somehow predisposed psychologically to be involved with one another and to be mutually supportive and non-competitive. 4/7/2012 template from www.brainybetty.
4/7/2012 template from www.com copyright 2006 39 . • Language behavior reflects male dominance. and the latter being powerless tend to get away in the engagement and seek support from other women. • Consequently.brainybetty. both men and women. women opt to use more prestigious language forms to protect themselves in dealing with the more powerful. • Men use their power to dominate others.Social organization is best perceived as some kind of hierarchical set of power relationships.
.Men and women are social beings who have learned to act in certain ways. • Men and women come from different sociolinguistic sub-culture. • Men often believes that „women are always agreeing with them and then conclude that its impossible to tell what a woman really thinks. • Language behavior is largely learned behavior.‟ whereas „women… get upset with men who never seem to be listening‟.
includng gender identity. • Processes participation and interaction are constantly changing. • The practices of the community and members‟ differentiated participation n them structure the community socially. • Defined simultaneously by its membership and by the practice in which that membership engages.com copyright 2006 41 . 4/7/2012 template from www.A Community of Practice • A community of practice is an aggregate of people who come together around mutual engagement in some common endeavor. so there is also a constant reshaping of both individual and group identity.brainybetty.
• Men and women use language to achieve certain purposes. and so long as differences in gender are equated with differences in access to power and influence in society.Language vs. • Men and women differ in the kinds of language they use because men and women often fill distinctly different roles in society.com copyright 2006 42 . Users • Languages themselves may not be sexist.brainybetty. we may expect linguistic differences too. 4/7/2012 template from www.
brainybetty.Hypercorrection • Assumes a correct male norm and characterizes the female norm as deviant 4/7/2012 template from www.com copyright 2006 43 .
brainybetty. Social Change Language • There are varying views as to how and why English should be cleaned up to eliminate sexism.com copyright 2006 44 .Freedom From Sexism • Attempts to modify languages to free them of perceived sexism or make them gender-neutral are a form of language planning. 4/7/2012 template from www.
the transgendered. etc.Queer Linguistics and Lavender Linguistics • Language of non-mainstream groups such as gays. and focus on “sexuality” rather than sex or gender. Foucault. lesbians. and Lacan regarding the concept of “desire”. bisexuals. 4/7/2012 template from www.com copyright 2006 45 . • Cameron and Kulick adopt a postmodern approach patterned on Derrida.brainybetty.
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