Face Recognition




Sangeetha:4SO10MCA39 Roofi Nafeesa:4SO10MCA37

Face Recognition




 History  Biometrics  Face

Authentication and Results

 Drawbacks  Tests

 Conclusion

Face Recognition



Face recognition is a computer based security system capable of automatically verifying or identifying a person. Biometrics identifies or verifies a person based on individual’s physical characteristics by matching the real time patterns against the enrolled ones.


 The

Face Recognition


first attempts to do this began in the 1960’s with a semi-automated system. The first attempts to do this began in the 1960’s with a semiautomated system. In 1970’s Goldstein, Harmon and Lesk created a system of 21 subjective markers such as hair color and lip thickness. 1988, when Kirby and Sirovich 42 used a standard linear algebra

 In

Face Recognition



Biometric consists of several authentication techniques based on unique physical characteristics such as face, fingerprints, iris, hand geometry, retina, and voice. Biometric Technologies fill the role of analyzing and measuring unique biological properties in order to produce unique identifications which is then digitalized and stored


Ø Ø 64 .Face Recognition 4/7/12  Biometrics can be divided into two main classes Physiological biometrics -related to the shape of the body Behavioral biometrics -related to the behavior of a person.

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Ø Physiological biometrics is related to the shape of the body Face Recognition 75 • .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 q Facial recognition technologies have recently developed into two areas Facial metric Eigen faces. q q 86 .

• Finger-scan Face Recognition 4/7/12 q A fingerprint is an impression of the friction ridges of all or any part of the finger. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the on the palmar(palm)or digits (fingers and toes) or plantar (sole) skin. q 97 . consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin.

q 108 .Face Recognition 4/7/12 • q Iris-scan This recognition method uses the iris of the eye which is colored area that surrounds the pupil. Iris patterns are unique and are obtained through video based image acquisition system.

Face Recognition 4/7/12 • q Retina-scan: It is based on the blood vessel pattern in the retina of the eye as the blood vessels at the back of the eye have a unique pattern. from eye to eye and person to person. Fig: Image of Retina 119 .

q 1210 . Various method are used to measure the hands. width.Face Recognition 4/7/12 • q Hand-scan: These techniques include the estimation of length. thickness and surface area of the hand.Mechanical or optical principle.

• Voice-scan: q 1311 . Voice is also physiological trait because every person has different pitch. but voice recognition is mainly based on the study of the way a person speaks.Face Recognition 4/7/12 Ø Behavioral biometrics is related to the behavior of a person.

• Signature-scan: Face Recognition 4/7/12 q The signature dynamics recognition is based on the dynamics of making the signature. There are various kinds of devices used to capture the signature dynamics traditional tablets or special purpose devices. rather than a direct comparison of the signature itself afterwards. q 1412 .

One biometric data is used in many different environments. videos) can be easily taken with available devices like cameras. Biometric data of the faces (photos. Access Control System using Face Recognition  Face recognition applications are more and more being taken interest in and developed They are non-intrusive. And facial recognition sounds rather 1513 interesting in comparison with other Face Recognition 4/7/12 q q q q q .

hand In-Plane Rotation Image conditions:  Size condition 1614  Lighting  Distortion . 45 degree. glasses etc Occlusions by long hair. upside down Facial Expressions q q q q q Presence of beard. out-of-Plane Rotation: profile.Face Recognition 4/7/12  Challenges q involved frontal. mustache.

Face Recognition 4/7/12 q q q q q q Lighting variation Orientation variation (face angle) Size variation Large database Processor intensive Time requirements 1715 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 FACE AUTHENTICATION .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 MODEL Face Capture devices Image digital proces sing Face dete ction Face databas e ID Access Control System Based on Face Authentication 1916 Model .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Algorithms in Use .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Face Recognition Model Face image Face detection Feature extractio n Feature match Face id Face Recognition Processing Flow Databas e of enrolled users 2117 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Face recognition model contd…    Face Detection Feature Extraction Feature Match  2218 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Face Recognition Algorithm .

Geometric feature-based approach  Face Recognition 4/7/12 Based on the geometric characteristics of faces Parts of human faces such as eyes. and mouth are located together with their attributes Distinguish faces based on information. nose. 2419    . This approach is quite effective for small database. with steady lighting and viewpoint.

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Disadvantages:  Not effective for unstable lighting condition and changing viewpoint.   2520 . The scanning technology is not yet reliable. The information extracted is not enough for an information-rich organ like face.

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Geometric feature-based approach 2621 .

Transforms the face space into subspaces Fewer dimensions Principal Component Analysis (PCA) KLT – Karhunen.Loève Transform..Face Recognition 4/7/12 Appearance-based approach      Based on human appearance. 2722 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 2823 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Eigenface Algorithm .

Acquire an initial set of face images 3024 .Face Recognition 4/7/12 Eigenfaces Initialization 1.

the eigen faces can be updated or recalculated 3125 . keeping only the M images that correspond to the highest eigenvalues.Face Recognition 2. As new faces are experienced. These M images define the face space.Calculate the eigen faces from the training set.

” 3226 . by projecting their face images onto the “face space.Face Recogniton 3. Calculate the corresponding distribution in Mdimensional weight space for each known individual.

classify the weight pattern as either a known person or as unknown. Determine if the image is a face at all by checking to see if the image is sufficiently close to “face space. (Optional) Update the eigenfaces and/or weight patterns. 3327 . Calculate a set of weights based on the input image and the M eigenfaces by projecting the input image onto each of the eigenfaces. If it is a face. 2.Face Recognition 4/7/12 Eigenfaces Recognition 1. 4.” 3.

nose.Parameter Based Facial recognition:  Face Recognition 4/7/12 Facial image is analyzed and reduced to small set of parameters describing prominent facial features Major features analyzed are: eyes. mouth and cheekbone curvature These features are then matched to a database   Advantage: recognition task is not very expensive Disadvantage: the image processing required is very expensive and parameter selection3428     .

Template Based Facial Recognition  Face Recognition 4/7/12 Salient regions of the facial image are extracted These regions are then compared on a pixelby-pixel basis with an image in the database Advantage is that the image preprocessing is simpler Disadvantage is the database search and comparison is very expensive    3529 .

Gabor wavelet-based features method. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) method. 3630 .Face Recognition 4/7/12 Other approach    Local Features Analysis (LFA) method.

Three-dimensional face recognition (3D face recognition)  Face Recognition 4/7/12 Three-dimensional geometry of the human face is used. Higher accuracy than their 2D counterparts angles images from different from a common 3731  Multiple .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Lenovo – Asus – Toshiba .

Lenovo Veriface III Face Recognition 4/7/12 3932 .

Asus SmartLogin Face Recognition 4/7/12 4033 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12   Toshiba Face Recognition 4134 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 DRAWBACKS .

• Influences of varied lighting • Influences of image capturing devices • Influences of Image Processing 4335 .Face Recognition 4/7/12 The security threat posed to Lenovo’s – Asus’s – Toshiba’s products. based on the basis face recognition algorithms and the tests performed on them: • Face Recognition in comparison with other biometric recognition systems.

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Table 1: State of art of biometric recognition systems 4436 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Biometric recognition systems Ø Finger Print Technology ØFace Recognition Technology ØIris Technology ØHand Geometry Technique ØRetina Geometry ØSpeaker Recognition Technique (voice) ØSignature Verification Technique 4537 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 BYPASS MODEL .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 4738 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 FAKE FACE .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 How to get a target’s image 4938 .

vLighting effect. v 5039 .Face Recognition 4/7/12 Fake Face Bruteforce There are several things to concern about in image editing so as the Brute Force to be successful. including: The image’s viewpoint.

Face Recognition 4/7/12 TESTS AND RESULTS .

0.Face Recognition 4/7/12 2) Asus SmartLogon V1.0005 5240 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 1) Lenovo Veriface III 5341 .

32 5442 .2.Face Recognition 4/7/12 3) Toshiba Face Recognition 2.0.

Face Recognition 4/7/12 RESULT ESTIMATION Table 2:results of the tests on the Bypass Model 5543 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 CONCLUSION   The weak points that might allow one to bypass into the systems of the three big computer manufacturers Lenovo – Asus – Toshiba is to give sufficient evidences that the authentication technologies being used by these three manufacturers are not efficient and secure enough as they are prone to be bypassed putting users’ data at serious risk. • 5644 .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Thank You .

Face Recognition 4/7/12 Questions?? 5858 .

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