NCRD’S STERLING INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES Nerul, Navi Mumbai

Subject Research Methodology & Fundamentals of Market Research Presentation on, Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research Submitted To, Submitted by

Prof, Shirish Bhakare Kunal Kshirsagar (A-42) Sayeem Khan (A-36) Nitin Rathod (A-31) MMS-I

Click to edit Master subtitle style Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research

Research Objectives

Exploratory Research

ü Gather preliminary information that will help
define the problem and suggest hypotheses

Primary Data
Primary data are survey, observation, or experimental data collected to address the current research problem.

Recall that secondary data is information that was previously been collected for a different purpose.

Research Design Primary research requires a research design: • The research design is a detailed blueprint used to guide the conduct of marketing research so that the research questions are answered and the research objectives are realized Research may be either qualitative or quantitative • .

Marketing Research Data Secondary Data Primary Data Qualitative Data Quantitative Data Descriptive Casual Survey Data Observational & Other Data Experimen tal Data .

Qualitative research is a loosely defined term. .Qualitative Research Qualitative research provides insight and understanding of the problem setting. It implies that the research findings are not determined by quantification or quantitative analysis.

Unstructured Non statistical Develop an initial understanding Large number of representative cases. Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Objective Quantitative Research To gain a qualitative To quantify the data understanding of the and generalize the underlying reasons and result from the sample motivations.Qualitative Vs. Structured Statistical Recommend a final course of action Sample Data Collection Data Analysis Outcome . to the population of interest. Small number of representative cases.

Classification of Qualitative Research Procedure Qualitative Research Procedure Direct (Non disguised) Indirect (Disguised) Focus Group Depth Interviews Projective Techniques Association Techniques Completion Techniques Construction Techniques Expressive Techniques .

spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining information relevant to the research problem.Focus Group Focus groups are small groups of people brought together and guided by a moderator through an unstructured. .

Focus Group • The moderator’s task is to ensure that open discussion is “focused ” on some area of interest. • Focus groups are used to generate ideas.” to gain some insights into basic needs and attitudes. to learn the respondents’ “vocabulary. .

A focus group should be homogeneous in terms of demographic and socioeconomic Characteristic. Ø Ø Ø Ø Ø . Use of videotapes is to be done to record the facial expressions and body movements. Moderator plays a key role in the success of focal group. Their should be relaxed and informal atmosphere. It should last from 1-3 hours.Characteristic of Focus Group Ø A focus group includes 8-12 Members.

Incomplete understanding: The moderator must encourage respondents to be more specific about generalized comments by exhibiting incomplete understanding. 4. 2. Involvement: The moderator must encourage and stimulate intense personal involvement. Kindness with firmness: The moderator must combine a disciplined detachment with understanding empathy so as to generate the necessary interaction.Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderator 1. Permissiveness: The moderator must be permissive yet alert to signs that the group’s cordiality or purpose is disintegrating. . 3.

cont 5. 7. Flexibility: The moderator must be able to improvise and alter the planned outline amid the distractions of the group process.Key Qualifications of Focus Group Moderators. Sensitivity: The moderator must be sensitive enough to guide the group discussion at an intellectual as well as emotional level. . Encouragement: The moderator must encourage unresponsive members to participate. 6.

Procedure for Planning and Conducting Focus Groups Determine the Objectives and Define the Problem Specify the Objectives of Qualitative Research State the Objectives/Questions to be Answered by Focus Group Write a Screening Questionnaire Develop a Moderator’s Outline Conduct the Focus Group Interview Review Tapes and Analyze the Data Summarize the Findings and Plan Follow‐Up Research or Action .

A focus group conducted by two moderators: One moderator is responsible for the smooth flow of the session. and the other ensures that specific issues are discussed.Variations in Focus Groups • Two ‐ way focus group. • Dueling ‐ moderator group. but they deliberately take opposite positions on the issues to be discussed. This allows one target group to listen to and learn from a related group. • Dual ‐ moderator group . There are two moderators. . For example. a focus group of physicians viewed a focus group of arthritis patients discussing the treatment they desired.

Client personnel are identified and made part of the discussion group.Variations in Focus Group • Respondent ‐ moderator group. • Mini groups. These groups consist of a moderator and only 4 or 5 respondents. Focus groups conducted online over the Internet. Focus group sessions by phone using the conference call technique. . The moderator asks selected participants to play the role of moderator temporarily to improve group dynamics. • Client ‐ participant groups . • Online Focus groups. groups. • Tele ‐ session session groups.

Spontaneity 6. Serendipity 7. Specialization 8. Synergism 2. Structure 10. Snowballing 3.Advantages of Focus Group • 1. Speed • • • • • • • • • . Scientific scrutiny 9. Security 5. Stimulation 4.

Disadvantages of Focus Groups • 1. Messy 5. Moderation 4. Misjudge 3. Misuse 2. Misrepresentation • • • • .

Time duration 1‐1.Online Versus Traditional Focus Groups Characteristic Group size Online Focus Groups 4‐6 8‐12 Drawn from the local 1‐3 hours Traditional Focus Groups Group composition Anywhere in the world. snowballing .5 hours Physical setting Researcher has little Under the control off control the researcher Respondent identity Difficult to verify Group dynamics Limited (bandwagon) effect Can be easily verified Synergistic. area.

• MM d t operators can carry on sided conversations with individual respondents.Advantages of Online Focus Groups • Geographical constraints are removed and time constraints are lessened . • Can recruit people not interested in traditional focus groups: doctors. . lawyers. etc. or facilities to arrange so the cost is much lower. videotaping. • Unique opportunity to re‐contact group participants at a later date. • There is no travel.

• Only audio and visual stimuli can be tested. • Verifying that a respondent is a member of a target group is difficult. perfumes). • There is lack of general control over the respondent's environment. ..Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups • Only people that have access to the Internet can participate.. Products can not be touched (e.g.g. clothing) or smelled (e.

ü .Focus Groups Reporting and Use of Results • Factors to remember when analyzing data: ü Some sense must be made by translating the qualitative statements of participants into categories and then reporting the degree of consensus apparent in the focus Groups. Demographics and buyer behavior characteristics of focus group participants should be judged against the target market profile to assess what degree the groups represent the target market.

Depth Interview Techniques: Laddering In laddering. Wide body aircrafts (product characteristic) I can get more work done I accomplish more I feel good about myself (user characteristic) Advertising theme: You will feel good about yourself when flying our airline. “You're The Boss.” . This technique allows the researcher to tap into the consumer's network of meanings . the line of questioning proceeds from product characteristics to user characteristics.

elite . “masculine ‐camaraderie camaraderie. and competitive heritage of the airline. . work lives.Depth Interview Techniques: Hidden Issue Questioning In hidden issue q g questioning. high status. fantasies.” not on general lifestyles but on deeply felt personal concerns.” competitive activities Advertising theme: communicate aggressiveness. the focus is not on socially shared values but rather on personal “sore spots. and social lives historic .

Depth Interview Techniques: Symbolic Analysis Symbolic analysis attempts to analyze the symbolic meaning of objects by comparing them with their opposites. II would have to rely rely onon letters and long ‐ distance calls. The logical opposites of a product that are investigated are: non‐usage of the product. . “What would it be like if you could no longer use airplanes?” “Without planes.” and opposite types of products.” Airlines sell to the managers face‐to‐face communication Advertising theme: The airline will do the same thing for a manager as Federal Express does for a package. planes. attributes of an imaginary “non‐product.

indirect form of questioning that encourages respondents to project their underlying motivations. respondents indirectly project their own motivations. beliefs. attitudes. . attitudes or feelings regarding the issues of concern. • In interpreting the behavior of others . or feelings into the situation. respondents are asked to interpret the behavior of others.Definition of Projective Technique • An unstructured. beliefs. • In projective techniques.

respondents are presented with a list of words. one at a time. The words of interest. and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind. (2) the amount of time that elapses before a response is given. Responses are analyzed by calculating: (1) the frequency with which any word is given as a response. or filler words to disguise the purpose of the study. . and (3) the number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time. called test words. are interspersed throughout the list which also contains some neutral.Word Association In word association.

husband this neighborhood bath squabbles dirty MRS. C ironing clean soiled does clean dirt soap and Water children wash .Word Association Dealing with Dirt EXAMPLE STIMULUS washday fresh pure scrub filth bubbles family towels MRS. M everyday and sweet air don't.

respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Generally. they are asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind. C. .Completion Techniques In sentence completion. in which the respondent completes a paragraph beginning with the stimulus phrase. A person who shops at Sears is __________________ A person who receives a gift certificate good for Sak's Fifth Avenue would be _________________________ J. I _____ A variation of sentence completion is paragraph completion. Penney is most liked by __________________ When I think of shopping in a department store.

enough to direct attention to a particular topic but not to hint at the ending. respondents are given part of a story.Completion Techniques In story completion. They are required to give the conclusion in their own words. .

The respondents are asked to indicate what one cartoon character might say in response to the comments off another character.Construction Technique With a picture response. cartoon characters are shown in a specific situation related to the problem. The respondent's interpretation of the pictures gives indications of that individual's personality. . Cartoon tests are simpler to administer and analyze than picture response techniques. the respondents are asked to describe a series of pictures of ordinary as well as unusual events. In cartoon tests.

A Cartoon Test .

neighbor. Third ‐ person technique The respondent is presented with a verbal or visual situation and the respondent is asked to relate the beliefs and attitudes of a third person rather than directly expressing personal beliefs and attitudes. respondents are presented with a verbal or visual situation and asked to relate the feelings and attitudes of other people to the situation. or a “typical” person. . colleague. Role playing Respondents are asked to play the role or assume the behavior of someone else. This third person may be a friend.Expressive Technique In expressive techniques.

Helpful when underlying motivations. • • . beliefs. and attitudes are operating at a subconscious level.Advantages of Projective Techniques • They may elicit responses that subjects would be unwilling or unable to give if they knew the purpose of the study. sensitive. Helpful when the issues to be addressed are personal. or subject to strong social norms.

Skilled interpreters are also required to analyze the responses. but to a greater extent. • • • • . There is a serious risk of interpretation bias.Disadvantages of Projective Techniques • Suffer from many of the disadvantages of unstructured direct techniques. Require highly‐trained interviewers. They 2011 tend to be expensive.

Projective techniques should be used for exploratory research to gain initial insights and understanding.Applications of Projective Techniques • Projective techniques should be used because the required information cannot be accurately obtained by direct methods. Given their complexity . • • . projective techniques should not be used naively.

Focus Groups Depth Interviews Relatively Medium Medium Projective Techniques Relatively low Degree of Structure Relatively high Low 2.Comparison of Focus Groups. Discovering innovative information 7. Overall usefulness Highly Useful . Involve unusual behavior or questioning 9. Depth Interviews. Obtaining sensitive information High Low Low Medium to High High Medium Medium Limited Useful Low High Yes Somewhat Useful 8. Moderator bias 4. Probing of individual respondents 3. Interpretation bias High Relatively medium Relatively Low Relatively High Low to High Relatively High Relatively Medium 5. and Projective Techniques Criteria 1. Uncovering subconscious Low information 6.

The display helps to illuminate patterns and interrelationships in the data . . 2) Data display – Develop a visual interpretation of the data with the use of such tools as a diagram. chart.Analysis of Qualitative Data 1) Data reduction – Select which aspects of the data are to be emphasized. or matrix. or set aside for the project at hand. 3) Conclusion drawing and verification – Considers the meaning of analyzed data and assess its implications for the research question at hand. minimized.

Different traditions of qualitative researches have established valid approaches and indicators which qualitative researches should follow. Finally. Qualitative researchers should be careful when using such methods not to endanger their unanimity. they should be clarified for the users. • . qualitative researchers should try to identify personal biases in the research results and analyze them and if they can’t balance these biases.Conclusion • Qualitative researches are the terms use to define strategies and techniques matched with some field researches.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.