(Night Vision Device)


Randhir kumar parmar




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What is night vision Night Vision Approaches The night vision technology Working of night vision device Generations Usage Conclusion References

plural tapeta lucida) is a layer of tissue in the eye of many animals. Humans have poor night vision compared to many animals. It reflects visible light back through the retina. . night vision is made possible by a combination of two approaches: sufficient spectral range. and sufficient intensity range . This improves vision in low-light conditions. that lies immediately behind or sometimes within the retina.What is Night Vision ??     Ability to see in dark environment Whether by biological or technological means. in part because the human eye does not have a tapetum lucidum The tapetum lucidum(Latin: "bright tapestry". increasing the light available to the photoreceptors.

Night Vision Approaches  Spectral range : Night-useful spectral range techniques make the viewer sensitive to types of light that would be invisible to a human observer. enough to help them see in conditions humans cannot. Some animals can see well into the infrared and/or ultraviolet compared to humans. Human vision is confined to a small portion of the electromagnetic spectrum called visible light. Enhanced spectral range allows the viewer to take advantage of nonvisible sources of electromagnetic radiation (such as near-infrared or ultraviolet radiation). .

. Intensity range : Sufficient intensity range is simply the ability to see with very small quantities of light. detect single photons under ideal conditions. in theory. Enhanced intensity range is achieved via technological means through the use of an image intensifier. Many animals have better night vision than humans do. or other very low-noise and high-sensitivity array of photo detectors. Although the human visual system can. the neurological noise filters limit sensitivity to a few tens of photons even in ideal conditions. gain multiplication CCD.

They are most often used by the military and law enforcement agencies. but are available to civilian users.Night Vision Device    A night vision device (NVD) is an optical instrument that allows images to be produced in levels of light approaching total darkness. The figure shows night vision goggle .

the AN/PVS-14 is a monocular night vision device in use with the US military as well as by civilians.EXAMPLES : 1. It may be mounted on the user's head for handsfree use with a harness or helmet attachment .

. or binoculars (also known as field glasses).  Binocular telescopes. are two identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction.  Another example is binoculars night vision device. allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.2.

The figure shows this type of night vision device .3.  Another Example is monocular situated on the gun.

 .Working of Night Vision devices Night Vision technology consists of two major types:  image intensification (light amplification) and  Thermal imaging(infrared).

such as moonlight or starlight. that is in the surrounding area.  As the electrons travel through and strike the walls of the channels. into electrical energy (electrons)  These electrons pass through a thin disk that's about the size of a quarter and contains over 10 million channels.  These multiplied electrons then bounce off of a phosphor screen which converts the electrons back into photons and lets you see an impressive nighttime view even when it's really dark.IMAGE INTENSIFICATION It is also called light amplification  It is less expensive than thermal  Light amplification technology takes the small amount of light.  . and converts the light energy (scientists call it photons). thousands more electrons are released.

 All image intensified night vision products on the market today have one thing in common: they produce a green output image .


. This information is obtained from several thousand points in the field of view of the detector array. The signal-processing unit sends the information to the display. The detector elements create a very detailed temperature pattern called a thermogram. It only takes about one-thirtieth of a second for the detector array to obtain the temperature information to make the thermogram. The thermogram created by the detector elements is translated into electric impulses. The combination of all the impulses from all of the elements creates the image.WORKING OF THERMAL IMAGING      A special lens focuses the infrared light emitted by all of the objects in view. The impulses are sent to a signal-processing unit. . The focused light is scanned by a phased array of infrared-detector elements. a circuit board with a dedicated chip that translates the information from the elements into data for the display. where it appears as various colors depending on the intensity of the infrared emission.

Types Of Thermal Imaging Device  There are two common types of thermalimaging devices: Un –Cooled  Cryogenically Cooled  .

Un-Cooled  This is the most common type of thermalimaging device. . This type of system is completely quiet. activates immediately and has the battery built right in. The infrared-detector elements are contained in a unit that operates at room temperature.

Cryogenically Cooled  More expensive and more susceptible to damage from rugged use. Cryogenically-cooled systems can "see" a difference as small as 0. ..2 F (0. these systems have the elements sealed inside a container that cools them to below 32 F (zero C).1 C) from more than 1. which is enough to tell if a person is holding a gun at that distance.000 ft (300 m) away. The advantage of such a system is the incredible resolution and sensitivity that result from cooling the elements.

stars. etc.e. ) . moonlight. thermal imaging is great for detecting people or working in near-absolute darkness with little or no ambient lighting (i.Continue……  Unlike traditional most night-vision equipment which uses image-enhancement technology.

GENERATIONS  Generation 0  Generation 1  Generation 2  Generation 3 .

to assist snipers.GENERATION 0  The first night vision devices. made primarily of silver. were introduced by the US Army in World War II. also known as the "sniperscope" or "snooperscope". Their image intensifier tubes function using an anode and an S-1 photocathode. the M1 and M3 infrared night sighting devices. They were active devices. and also used in the Korean War. caesium and oxygen to accelerate the electrons . using a large infrared light source to illuminate targets.

but are quite bulky and require moonlight to function properly. Using an S-20 photocathode. and rely on ambient light instead of an infrared light source. introduced during the Vietnam War were an adaptation of earlier active Gen 0 technology.GENERATION 1    First generation passive devices. Examples: AN/PVS-2 . their image intensifiers produce a light amplification of around 1000x.

Light amplification was around 20000x Also improved were image resolution and reliability. This leads to increased illumination in low ambient light environments.GENERATION 2      Second generation devices featured an improved imageintensifier tube utilizing micro-channel plate (MCP) with an S-25 photocathode . such as moonless nights. Examples: AN/PVS-4 AN/PVS-5 SUPERGEN . especially around edges of the lens. resulting in a much brighter image.

autogated or not .GENERATION 3        Third generation night vision systems maintain the MCP from Gen II. the MCP is coated with an ion barrier film for increased tube life. but now use a photocathode made with gallium arsenide. to around 30000-50000x Examples: AN/PVS-7 NVS-7 AN/PVS-14 NVS-14 XD-4. which further improves image resolution. In addition. The light amplification is also improved.

The gated power supply further improves image resolution under high light conditions. and the reduced halo minimizes interference from bright light sources.Advantage of Gen 3 over Gen 2  Gen 3 technology improves night operational effectiveness for military users of night vision goggles and other night vision devices. resulting in better image quality (less scintillation) under low-light conditions. These improvements also substantially increase the detection range of the syste . The filmless MCP provides a higher signal-to-noise ratio than Gen 2.

000 20% Higher 40% Smaller Courtesy of Matt Last .Continued…… GEN 2 Photoresponse(µA /Im) Signal-to-Noise Ratio Resolution(lp/mm) Halo(mm) Reliability(hours) 1800 21.0 64 1.25 10.000 GEN 3 1800 % Improvement - 25 64 0.75 10.

Detection Range Gen 1 SuperGen 1 Gen 2 OMNI I and II Gen 2 OMNI III Gen 2 OMNI IV Gen 3 Detection Range (m) 170 270 240 290 360 430 % Improvem ent over Gen 1 0% 60% 40% 70% 110% 153% .

The larger the object the easier it is too see.If it is cloudy and overcast then we typically state that we can tell the difference between a male and a female or a dog and a deer at about 75 to 100 yards. infrared light) the better and further we will be able to see . If there is ambient light then we can see about 500 yards. First which object we want to see. moonlight. Second. . Another variable is lighting conditions. The more ambient light we have (starlight.How Far Can We See ??      There are many different variables that can effect the distance that you we see with a Night Vision device.

BLACK SPOTS ON THE SCREEN   As we look through a night vision device we may notice black spots on the screen. Typically these spots can be cleaned. . These black spots will not affect the performance or reliability of the night vision device. A NVD is similar to a television screen and attracts dust and dirt.

. rescue outfits and various amateur uses (for example animal watching or hunting).USAGE  Night vision devices were originally developed for military use. but have since spread into other areas. such as security and police work.

Conclusion    Through night vision device we can see the object in dark environment. Initially this device was used by military but now it also available for civilians. . We have seen four generation of this devices and seen different ranges.


Thank You Presented by Randhir Kumar parmar Roll No: 67 C. CUSAT . ‘B’ S.S.O..E.

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