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Sustainable Technologies and Policy Options for Climate Change for Developing Countries

Osama Almatrafi , KHAGENDRA DHAKAL & Hamad Bubshait 20th March 2012


Climate Change & International Governances (UN)

Sustainable Technologies and Policy Options





Gap Technology Practice (Case Study) Policy

Recommendations & Conclusions

About Climate Change

Rising global surface temperature

About Climate Change

Rising sea level surface

About Climate Change

Decreasing trend in northern hemisphere snow cover



Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions, per country and per capita

European Union


Total CO2 emissions


Between 1950-2001 in billions of tons











Trinidad and Tobago

Kuwait United Arab Emirat es

South Africa



USA 4% of worlds total population 25% of the worlds greenhouse gases

CHINA 25% of the worlds population 8.5% of the worlds greenhouse gases

About Climate Change

We know that Greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations are increasing GHGs affect the climate system World average temperature has risen relatively fast over the past 30 years Sea-level rise is gradually accelerating Many temperature-sensitive systems/processes have changed over the past two decades
Most Important Greenhouse Gases
Water: H2O Carbon Dioxide: CO2 Methane: CH4

UNFCCC identified three key areas of response

Promoting the science needed as a sound basis for decision making on mitigation and adaptation


Mitigating climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions


Adapting to the changes that are inevitable, no matter what mitigation action is taken


National Strategy on Climate Change (2008 - 2012)


Build capacity to adapt and reduce vulnerabilities to climate change impacts Support greenhouse gas emissions reduction and add more carbon dioxide sinks on integrity development Support research and development to better understand climate change, its impacts and adaptation and mitigation options Raise awareness and promote public participation

Build capacity of relevant personnel and institutions and establish a framework of coordination and integration Support international cooperation to achieve the common goal of climate change mitigation and sustainable development

National Strategy on Climate Change (2008 - 2012)

Support greenhouse gas emissions reduction and add more carbon dioxide sinks on integrity development

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve production technology base to clean technology

Energy Technologies

Hydropower Solar energy Solar photovoltaic (PV) Solar home system Solar LED lamps module Solar water pumping Wind energy Geothermal energy and natural gas

Energy Policy Options

Increase efficiency electricity use and production o Increasing efficiency of electricity generation system from fossil fuel power plant o Promoting electricity saving activity in private, civic and government sector Increase efficiency of energy using and saving in transportation sector o Promoting travel by mass transit system o Reducing travel wanted by communication support in private sector and government sector o Developing and promoting efficiency transportation system by logistics management Supporting and developing alternative energy use o Promoting energy plants o Supporting production and usage of alternative energy without making greenhouse gas emissions

Agriculture Impacts

Biophysical impacts: physiological effects on crops, pasture, forests changes in land, soil and water resources increased weed and pest challenges sea level rise, changes to ocean salinity sea temperature rise Socio-Economic impacts: decline in yields and production reduced marginal GDP from agriculture fluctuations in world market prices increased number of people at risk of hunger and food insecurity migration and civil unrest
Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. Publication. FAO.

Agriculture Technologies
New Traits, Varieties & Crops ( Biotechnology ) Water Efficient Maize and Bacillus thuringiensis Erosion control Dam construction for irrigation

New irrigation techniques

Changes in fertilizer use and application Soil fertility maintenance Changes in planting and harvesting times Management of soil and water
Technologies for Adaptation To Climate Change. Rep. UNFCCC

Agriculture Tech Adaptation

Sosa, Mexico a new irrigation system housed in a 1.5-hectare greenhouse that is fitted with an automated system with sprinklers and drip lines to supply the soil with water and nutrients, both inside and outside the complex. Bangladesh Floating agriculture: a method in which a bed of plants is floating on the water. The plants use the water as a source of nutrition as opposed to the soil in the traditional methods.

Technologies for Adaptation To Climate Change. Rep. UNFCCC

Agriculture Policy Options

Promoting agricultural process improvement among agriculturist by efficiency in utilization of resources and less chemical use

Developing low greenhouse gas emission for agricultural management system

Increasing efficiency in outdoor burning by incentive measures and law measures Promoting animal food quality improvement, in order to reduce greenhouse gas emission from digestive system

Environment Technologies

Urbanization and waste management Built-up environment issues Waste management Tourism Deforestation Garbage Political instability Transportation and communication Transport Electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles Developing trolleybus system Aerial lift for mountainous area Education

Environment Case Study


Population (approximation) Population Growth Rate Waste Generation Other Sources Per capita waste generation Total Waste Generation Municipal Collection

8,000,000 (people) 3.25% 0.25% 0.15% 0.40% 320 tons/day 300 tons/day

Environment Policy Options

o o o

Reducing waste amount from source Improving law, rule, regulations and formulating economical measures Promoting sufficiency economy on consuming Supporting entrepreneur to reduce waste container use and promoting safety reuse container

Efficiency waste management o Supporting provincial administrative organization clustering Reducing outdoor burning o Creating motivation in public sector to separate the garbage o Reducing outdoor burning

Manufacture Technologies

Manufacture Policy Options

Specifying the entrepreneur that produce a lot of greenhouse gas such as cement production, iron production etc. to put greenhouse gas reduction plan and measures in the companys policy, and require to have yearly greenhouse gas emissions evaluation Formulating incentive measure for bank sector to use environmental regulations for loan approval consideration to the entrepreneur

Government use economic tools, such as fuel tax to discourage the use of diesel vehicles and eliminating the high taxes on electric cars
Scientific settlement plan by government should be done Improvement the quality of education should be one of governments policies.

Two venues for action


Drive less - Carpool or use transit - Walk or bicycle - Combine errands - Telecommute Drive a fuel-efficient car


Financially support concerned organizations

Volunteer for concerned organizations - Door-to-door education - Legislative lobbying

Reduce home energy use - CFLs - Energy Star appliances - Heat room-by-room - Minimize summer A/C
Purchase GHG offsets

Reactive adaptation Water Resources Agriculture and food security Protection of groundwater resources Improved water supply Erosion control Dam construction for irrigation Anticipatory adaptation Better use of recycled water Improved system of water management Research and development Soil-water management

Public health management Human Health reform Improved emergency response

Improvement of management systems Improvement of carbon storage in forests

Development of early warning system Improvement of environmental quality

Monitoring of species Development and maintenance of seed banks

Terrestrial ecosystems


To survive in the world we have transformed, we must learn to think in a new way. As never before, the future of each depends on the good of all.
100 Nobel Laureates Oslo, December 2001