BLOOD GROUPS

Dr.Sreedhar Dept. of Physiology

• ABO • Rh ( Rhesus Monkey ) • MN • P • LEWIS etc • Landsteiner : discoverer of blood groups .

• Agglutinogen – antigen – RBC surface • Agglutinin – antibody – Plasma – infancy-from food Group A B AB O Rh+ Rh Agglutinogen A B AB D ( 85 % ) no D Agglutinin beta ( anti B .IgM ) alpha ( anti A – IgM ) alpha & beta ( IgG ) .

• 1. Law of Blood Grouping If the Agglutinogen is present in RBC. 2. the corresponding Agglutinin is absent in Plasma If the Agglutinogen is absent in RBC. the corresponding Agglutinin is present in Plasma Exception : Rh group Rh.Rh agglutinin is not present in Plasma ( present when transfused with Rh+ blood ) • .

• Mendelian Inheritence • A.O genes • Parents : AO • Children : AB BO AO BO OO .B.

• Cross Matching :donors cells & recipients plasma • O group Universal Donor • AB group Universal Recipient • A group A AB Incompatable with B O • Rh+ never given to Rh- .

transfusion • Rh. 2nd & later Baby affected Haemolytic disease of newborn: jaundice & anemia Erythroblastosis fetalis : nucleated RBC Kernicterus :deposition of bile pigments in basal ganglia Treatment : exchange transfusion in baby Prevention : anti Rh immunoglobulin to mother after the birth of first child .• Rh incompatibility : Rh+ to Rh.mother Rh+ fetus – blood enters via placenta 1st pregnancy Normal .

Plasma ( burns ) . Anemia. Surgery • Components of blood : RBC.• Whole Blood Transfusion : Haemmorage. Platelets are also transfused • Autologous transfusion .

• • • • Precautions : Screening of donor for Malaria. AIDS Crossmatching Storing in aseptic conditions Slow transfusion . Syphilis. Hepatitis.

• • • • Storage of Blood : 0 to 4 degrees centigrade Acid citrate dextrose to provide energy Red cells become spherical Inhibition of Na + pump Water moves into cells K+ more in plasma become normal after transfusion • Rapid transfusion : Hyperkalemia .

Tightness of chest. . Dyspnea • Haemoglobinuria. Renal Failure.Fall in blood pressure. Uraemia and Death.• • • • Effects of mismatched transfusion : Agglutination of Red cells Haemolysis Shock : Shivering. Jaundice.

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