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The Power of Attitudes

Attitude:
A lasting, general evaluation of people (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or issues Anything toward which one has an attitude is called an object (Ao). Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure over time.

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The Functions of Attitudes


Functional Theory of Attitudes:
Attitudes exist because they serve some function for the person (i.e., they are determined by a persons motives)

Katzs Attitude Functions


Utilitarian function Value-expressive function Ego-defensive function Knowledge function
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Addressing Smoking Attitudes

This Norwegian ad addresses young peoples smoking attitudes by arousing strong negative feelings. The ad reads (left panel) Smokers are more sociable than others. (Right panel): While it lasts.
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The ABC Model of Attitudes


Affect:
The way a consumer feels about an attitude object

Behavior:
Involves the persons intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object

Cognition:
The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object

Hierarchy of Effects:
A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to an attitude
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Three Hierarchies of Effects

Figure 7.1

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Attitude Hierarchies
The Standard Learning Hierarchy:
Consumer approaches a product decision as a problemsolving process

The Low-Involvement Hierarchy:


Consumer does not have strong initial preference Consumer acts on limited knowledge Consumer forms an evaluation only after product trial

The Experiential Hierarchy:


Consumers act on the basis of their emotional reactions
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Experiential Hierarchy
Emotional Contagion:
Emotions expressed by the communicator of a marketing message affect the attitude toward the product

Cognitive-Affective Model:
Argues that an affective judgment is the last step in a series of cognitive processes

Independence Hypothesis:
Takes the position that affect and cognition involve two separate, independent systems
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Smith and Wollensky


This ad for New Yorks famous Smith & Wollensky restaurant emphasizes that marketers and others associated with a product or service are often more involved with it than are their consumers.

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Product Attitudes Dont Tell the Whole Story


Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad):
A predisposition to respond in a favorable or unfavorable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion

Ads Have Feelings Too:


Three emotional dimensions:
Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation

Specific types of feelings that can be generated by an ad


Upbeat feelings: Amused, delighted, playful Warm feelings: Affectionate, contemplative, hopeful Negative feelings: Critical, defiant, offended
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Discussion Question
Sexually suggestive scenes like the one depicted in this ad for Union Bay clothing can generate feelings that affect brand attitudes. What specific types of feelings or responses can this type of advertisement elicit? How will this scene affect the attitude toward the ad?
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Forming Attitudes
Not All Attitudes are Created Equal:
Levels of Commitment to an Attitude: The degree of commitment is related to the level of involvement with an attitude object
Compliance Identification Internalization

The Consistency Principle:


Principle of Cognitive Consistency: Consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or behaviors to be consistent with other experiences
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Levels of Attitudinal Commitment

By describing Cadillac as my company, the woman in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal commitment to her employer. 7 - 12

Forming Attitudes (cont.)


Cognitive Dissonance and Harmony among Attitudes: Theory of Cognitive Dissonance: When a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors, he or she will take action to reduce the dissonance by changing an attitude or modifying a behavior. Self-Perception Theory: People maintain consistency by inferring that they must maintain a positive attitude toward a product they have bought or consumed Foot-in-the-door technique: Sales strategy based on the observation that consumers will comply with a request if they have first agreed to comply with a smaller request
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Attitudinal Commitment

This ad for a magazine illustrates that consumers often distort information so that it fits with what they already believe or think they know. 7 - 14

Discussion Question
Consumer researchers understand that consumers like to bask in the reflected glory of successful college athletic programs by wearing merchandise adorned with logos like the ones on the right. How do the different attitude theories explain this consumer phenomenon?
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Attitude Models
Attitude Models:
Specify the different elements that might work together to influence peoples evaluations of Aos

Multiattribute Models:
Model that assumes a consumers Ao will depend on the beliefs he or she has about several attributes toward the object

Multiattribute Models Specify 3 Elements:


Attributes Beliefs Importance Weights
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Attitude Models
Choosing products:
We often choose products because of their association with a certain lifestyle.

Goal of Lifestyle Marketing:


To allow consumers to pursue their chosen ways to enjoy life and express their social identities.

Adopting Lifestyle Marketing:


Implies that we must look at patterns of behavior to understand consumers
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The Fishbein Model


Measures 3 components of attitude:
(1) Salient Beliefs (2) Object-attribute linkages (3) Evaluation

Assumptions of the Fishbein Model:


Ability to specify all relevant choice attributes Identification, weight, and summing of attributes

Affect referral:
A process by which a consumers overall attitude is formed by an overall affective response
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The Fishbein Equation


The Basic Formula:

Aijk = ijkIik
Where:
i = attribute j = brand k = consumer I = the importance weight given attribute I by consumer k = consumer ks belief regarding the extent to which brand j possesses attribute I A = a particular consumers (ks) attitude score for brand j
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The Basic Multiattribute Model

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Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model


Capitalize on Relative Advantage Strengthen Perceived Product/Attribute Linkages Add a New Attribute Influence Competitors Ratings

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Tracking Attitudes over Time


Attitude-tracking program:
An single-attitude survey is a snapshot in time A program allows researchers to analyze attitude trends during an extended period of time

Ongoing Tracking Studies


Attitude tracking involves administration of a survey at regular intervals (e.g. Gallup Poll, Yankelovich Monitor) This activity is valuable for making strategic decisions
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Attitude Changes over Time


Changes to Look for over Time:
Changes in different age groups:
Attitudes change with age Historical effects

Scenarios about the future:


Consumers tracked in terms of future plans, confidence in economy, and so on

Identification of change agents:


Social phenomena can alter peoples attitudes

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Changing Attitudes

Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who agree We must take radical action to cut down on how we use our cars. Figure 7.4
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