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ASH HANDLING SYSTEM IN THERMAL POWER PLANT AN OVERVIEW

THERMAL POWER GENERATION CAPACITY OF INDIA CAPACITY OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS IN INDIA AUG. 2008 - 77198 MW 2012 (ESTIMATED) -127768 MW ASH GENERATION - 130 Million Tons (approx)

CHALLENGES IN ASH DISPOSAL


LAND AVAILABILITY POOR QUALITY OF COAL LOW CALORIFIC VALUE HIGH ASH CONTENT STRINGENT ENVIRONMENT NORMS 100% UTLISATION OF ASH IN 4 YRS MONITORING GROUND WATER CONTROL OF FUGITIVE DUST EMISSION EFFLUENTS TO BE WITHIN PRESCRIBED LIMITS

POSSIBLE CLOSURE OF POWER PLANTS NOT ADHERING TO ENVIRONMENT NORMS

Land Requirement For Ash Dyke

FOR A TYPICAL 1000 MW FOR 25 YEARS

- 800 ACRES

AS PER ASH UTILISATION GUIDELINES OF MOEF

- 500 ACRES

FOR ADDITIONAL 50000 MW

- 25000 ACRES

ASH COMPOSITION
SILICA ( SiO2) ALUMINA ( Al2O3)61- 63 % 26 - 28%

IRON OXIDE( Fe2O3)TITANIA (TiO2) Phosphoric Anhydride(P2O5) Lime (CaO) Magnesia (MgO) Sulphuric Anhydride (SO3) Sodium Oxide (Na2O)

45%
1.75- 1.88 % 0.54-0.55 % 0.77- 1.52 % 0.46 1.12 % 0.05 0.06 % 0.08 %

Potasium Oxide (K2O)


ASH FUSION RANGE

0.32 1.22 %
1100 1400 DEG CENTIGRADE

PC FIRED BOILER

Econ Ash Hopper

Bottom Ash Hopper

Air Preheater
Flyash To ESP

Typical Ash distribution for 2 pass boiler


Furnace
(1300 - 1500C)
Economizer
Air preheater APH

ESP
Electrostatic Precipitator

Stack

Stage B: 17 %

Stage A: 80 %

Bottom Ash

Eco Ash APH Ash

Fly ash

20 %

80 %

Fineness

Stage C: 3 %

Pulverized Coal

ASH PRODUCTION
BOTTOM ASH - BOILER FURNACE COARSE ASH (grits) - ECONOMISER - AIR PRE-HEATER FLY ASH (dust) - ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS - DUCT HOPPERS (IF APPLICABLE)

ASH DISTRIBUTION
LOCATION FURNACE BOTTOM % OF TOTAL ASH IN COAL FIRED 15-20

ECONOMISER HOPPERS
AIR PRE-HEATER HOPPERS

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR HOPPERS

75-80

ASH QUANTITIES
ASH HANDLING SYSTEMS DESIGNED FOR HANDLING ASH FROM WORST COAL AT BOILER MCR CONDITION
TYPICAL WORST COAL FIRED GCV : 3000 kcal/kg Ash content : 40%

CONVENTIONAL BOTTOM ASH HANDLING SYSTEMS


WET TYPE

INTERMITTENT TYPES
WATER-IMPOUNDED HOPPER WITH JET PUMPS (R/FII/TK/SIM/NEW STATIONS) OPEN-HEARTH HOPPER WITH TRENCH SLUICE/JET PUMPS (RIHAND)

CONTINUOUS TYPES
SCRAPER-CHAIN CONVEYOR WITH TRENCH SLUICE/CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS (ALL OLD STATIONS) SCREW CONVEYOR WITH TRENCH SLUICE/CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS (V STG-I/KH STG-I)

WATER - IMPOUNDED HOPPER WITH JET PUMPS


ONE REFRACTORY-LINED STORAGE HOPPER PER UNIT FOR THE BOTTOM ASH
SINGLE VEE (V) SHAPE (UPTO 110 MW TYPICALLY) BOX SHAPE (UPTO 60 MW TYPICALLY) DOUBLE VEE (W) SHAPE (ABOVE 110 MW-500 MW) TRIPLE VEE(VVV) SHAPE (ABOVE 500 MW)

HOPPER SIZED FOR 5-6 HOURS OR 8 HOURS CAPACITY ON DRY ASH BASIS DEPENDING ON ASH QUANTITY AND SPACE AVAILABLE BELOW BOILER FURNACE
TYPICALLY 180 CU.M. FOR 210 MW TYPICALLY 450 CU.M. FOR 500 MW

HOPPER CONTINUOUSLY SUPPLIED WITH WATER FROM DEDICATED PUMPS

FOR COOLING THE REFRACTORY LINING FOR COOLING HOT BOTTOM ASH TO SHATTER CLINKERS

WIH WITH JET PUMPS


OVERFLOW WATER RECYCLED IN ASH HANDLING PLANT AFTER SETTLING OUT THE CARRYOVER ASH .

HOPPER EVACUATED ONCE IN 4 HOURS OR 8 HOURS USING JET PUMPS SUPPLIED WITH HIGH PRESSURE WATER FROM DEDICATED PUMPS. ASH SLUICED VIA PIPELINES TO MAIN SLURRY PUMPHOUSE.

SCRAPER-CHAIN CONVEYOR
ONE REFRACTORY-LINED TRANSITION HOPPER WITH ISOLATION GATES PER UNIT FOR EMERGENCY STORAGE OF ASH HOPPER SIZED FOR 3- 4 HOURS HOLDING CAPACITY
- TYPICALLY 150 CU.M. IN 210 MW - TYPICALLY 300 CU.M. IN 500 MW

WATER-FILLED TROUGH WITH SCRAPER BARS ATTACHED TO PAIR OF MOVING ENDLESS CHAINS FOR REMOVAL OF ASH CONTINUOUSLY
2 X 100% ( ONE WORKING + ONE STANDBY) , OR 2 X 50% (TWO WORKING + TWO STANDBY) DEPENDING ON SUPPLIERS CAPABILITY

SCRAPER CONVEYOR

SCC
WATER SUPPLIED CONTINUOUSLY

- FOR SPRAY-QUENCHING OF ASH IN TRANSITION


HOPPER FOR COOLING OF ASH IN TROUGH

OVERFLOW WATER FROM TROUGH RECYCLED IN ASH HANDLING PLANT AFTER SETTLING OUT CARRYOVER ASH

OPEN-HEARTH
BOX -SHAPED REFRACTORY-LINED STORAGE HOPPER , DIVIDED INTO SEVERAL COMPARTMENTS WATER CONTINUOUSLY SPRAYED ON ASH FOR QUENCHING COMPARTMENTS EMPTIED SEQUENTIALLY ASH EVACUATION FROM HOPPER ON INTERMITTENT BASIS ( EG. ONCE A SHIFT)

OPEN-HEARTH
ASH FLUSHED FROM COMPARTMENTS USING HIGH PRESSURE WATER JETS AND THE SLURRY SLUICED VIA TRENCH TO DISPOSAL PUMPHOUSE ASH SLURRY CAN ALSO BE REMOVED USING JET PUMPS/CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS LOCATED BELOW FLOOR LEVEL

SCREW CONVEYOR
ONE TRANSITION HOPPER PER UNIT WATER SPRAYED ON BOTTOM ASH FALLING THROUGH HOPPER FOR QUENCHING ASH FALLS INTO TROUGH BELOW HOPPER ONE SCREW CONVEYOR ,INCLINED UPWARDS, PROVIDED IN TROUGH TO REMOVE THE ASH CONTINUOUSLY

SCREW CONVEYOR
DEWATERED ASH SLUICED VIA TRENCH TO SLURRY DISPOSAL PUMPHOUSE

JET PUMP

Scraper Conv

Open Hearth

Screw Conv

Experience High + Med Less _ Less _ (India) BA HANDLING COMPARISON Power High _ Med High OF OPTIONS_ Med cons.

Water cons. High


Capital Cost O&M cost

_ Med
+ High _ + High _ Med

High _
Less + Less + Med

Med
Med Med Med

Less Less

O & M view High +

NEW TECHNOLOGIES FOR BOTTOM ASH HANDLING


DRY TYPE -BELT CONVEYOR TYPE -PNEUMATIC TYPE

BELT CONVEYOR TYPE


REFRACTORY-LINED STEEL TRANSITION HOPPER WITH DISCHARGE GATES BELOW BOILER FOR EMERGENCY ASH STORAGE. AIR-TIGHT STEEL CASING BELOW HOPPER FOR THE CONVEYOR. PANS ATTACHED TO ENDLESS CONVEYOR BELT OF STEEL MESH RIDING ON IDLERS FOR TRANSPORTING THE ASH.

BELT CONVEYOR TYPE


AMBIENT AIR LEAKED INTO CASING FOR: - COOLING THE HOT ASH - COMBUSTION OF UNBURNT COAL IN ASH - TRANSFERRING THE HEAT EXTRACTED FROM THE ASH TO THE BOILER FURNACE. DRY, COOLED BOTTOM ASH DISCHARGED FOR FURTHER PROCESSING AND TRANSPORTATION.

BELT CONVEYOR TYPE


DOWNSTREAM EQUIPMENT TO BE PROVIDED SUITING FURTHER USE/TRANSPORTATION OF THE DRY ASH (CRUSHERS, BELT CONVEYORS/PNEUMATIC CONVEYORS, ETC.).

ECONOMISER ASH HANDLING SYSTEMS


WET TYPE - FLUSHING BOX ,AND , - TRENCH SLUICE , OR - TRANSFER TANK AND CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS , OR - COMBINED WITH BOTTOM ASH - FEEDER EJECTOR , AND, - TRENCH SLUICE - TRANSFER TANK WITH JET PUMPS DRY TYPE
VACUUM TYPE PNEUMATIC CONVEYING PRESSURE TYPE PNEUMATIC CONVEYING

ECO ASH SYSTEMS


FLUSHING BOX BASED SYSTEMS
CONTINUOUS ASH REMOVAL CAN BE COMBINED WITH CONTINUOUS -TYPE BOTTOM ASH REMOVAL SYSTEMS( SSC , SCREW CONVEYOR) TO OPTIMISE WATER AND POWER CONSUMPTION AND LAYOUT PREFERRED AS HOT ASH IS CONTINUOUSLY COOLED AND REMOVED

FEEDER EJECTOR BASED SYSTEMS


INTERMITTENT ASH REMOVAL CAN BE COMBINED WITH INTERMITTENT TYPE BOTTOM ASH REMOVAL SYSTEMS (WIH) TO OPTIMISE WATER AND POWER CONSUMPTION AND LAYOUT

FLUSHING BOX

ECO ASH HANDLING SYSTEMS


PNEUMATIC SYSTEMS
PERIODIC ASH REMOVAL USUALLY AS PART OF CYCLE INVOLVING AIR PREHEATER AND ESP DRY ASH REMOVAL SYSTEM SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGN OF SYSTEM AS ASH PARTICLES ARE BIGGER AND OF DIFFERENT SHAPE COMPARED TO ESP ASH. RELIABILITY OF ASH REMOVAL DEPENDS ON ABILITY OF SEALING MATERIAL AT PIPING JOINTS TO WITHSTAND THE HIGH ASH TEMPERATURE (300-400 DEG. C) AND PIPING LAYOUT WITH MINIMUM BENDS

AIR PREHEATER ASH REMOVAL SYSTEMS


SIMILAR TO ECONOMISER ASH REMOVAL SYSTEMS. RELATIVELY EASIER DUE TO LOWER ASH TEMPERATURE( 150-200 DEG. C) USUALLY COMBINED WITH ESP DRY ASH REMOVAL SYSTEM

ESP ASH REMOVAL SYSTEMS


WET TYPE DRY TYPE CONTINUOUS TYPE INTERMITTENT TYPE

ESP ASH REMOVAL SYSTEMS


CONTINUOUS TYPE - FLUSHING BOX AND TRENCH SLUICE (WET SYSTEM)/WETTING HEADS - PNEUMATIC TYPE (DRY SYSTEM) INTERMITTENT TYPE - FEEDER EJECTOR AND TRENCH/PIPE SLUICE (WET SYSTEM)

ESP ASH REMOVAL SYSTEM (Fly Ash)


TWO-STAGE SYSTEM - PNEUMATIC CONVEYING FROM ESP HOPPERS TO BUFFER HOPPERS / WETTING HEADS/SLURRIYING UNITS - PNEUMATIC TRANSPORTATION FROM BUFFER HOPPERS TO STORAGE SILOS/SLUICING VIA TRENCHES FROM SLURRIYING UNITS TO SLURRY DISPOSAL PUMP HOUSE

Vacuum conveying and pressure transportation system

VACUUM CONVEYING SYSTEM


MECHANICAL EXHAUSTERS (VACUUM PUMPS) USED A ROW OF HOPPERS FROM FRONT OF ESP TO REAR/ROW OF HOPPERS IN EACH FIELD IN EACH ESP PASS CONNECTED TO ASH CONVEYING LINE ASH REMOVED SEQUENTIALLY FROM ESP HOPPERS IN EACH LINE AND CONVEYED TO BUFFER HOPPER OR TO SLURRIYING UNIT. LIMITATIONS ON CAPACITY AND CONVEYING DISTANCE - TYPICALLY 50-60 MTPH FOR 150 M

PRESSURE CONVEYING SYSTEM


AIR COMPRESSORS (SCREW TYPE) USED PUMP TANK (BLOW TANK) BELOW EACH ESP HOPPER FOR ASH REMOVAL IN BATCHES

ASH CONVEYING LINE FOR EACH FIELD OF ESP


ASH REMOVED SEQUENTIALLY FROM EACH FIELD AND CONVEYED TO BUFFER HOPPERS ASH CAN BE CONVEYED TO A DISTANCE OF 1000 METER.

PRESSURE CONVEYING SYSTEM (CONTD.)


LOW PRESSURE MEDIUM PRESSURE MATERIAL TRANSPORT MODE SUSPENSION PARTLY IN SUSPENSION, PARTLY AS MOVING BED 2-3 HIGH PRESSURE SLUG (DUNE OR PLUGS FILLING WHOLE PIPE SECTION) >3

TYPICAL CONVEYING AIR PRESSURE (BAR) TYPICAL ASH/AIR RATIO BY WT. TYPICAL CONVEYING VELOCITIES(M/S) TYPICAL AIR SOURCE

Up to 2

<20 15-20

20-30 10-15

>50 5-8

BLOWER/COMPRESSOR

SINGLE-STAGE SCREW COMPRESSOR

TWO-STAGE SCREW COMPRESSOR

Ash Disposal System


Conventional Lean Concentration Slurry Disposal (LCSD) System High Concentration Slurry Disposal ( HCSD) System

Dry Ash mound

Ash Disposal System


1. Conventional Lean Slurry Disposal System
Bottom ash discharge rate based on Jet pump capacity/SSC capacity The fly ash handling system shall be assumed to operate continuously and the fly ash collection rates shall be same as the rates considered for sizing pneumatic conveying system, for the purpose of sizing of the disposal system. The slurry line velocities shall not exceed 2.8m/sec. The ash concentration (W/W) shall be For combined slurry disposal 28% max. For fly ash slurry disposal 30% max. For bottom ash slurry disposal 25% max. The value of `C factor( William-hazen eqn.) to be considered for arriving at the pressure drop shall be 140.

High Concentration Slurry Disposal ( HCSD) System

Design concentration for ash slurry pumping is 60% by weight. Range of concentration - 55% to 70% Ash pipe line velocity - 1.8 M/Sec. (max.) HCSD pump operating range - 10% to 100% of rated flow. Shut-down Restart for pumping operation Minimum 12 hrs. The High Concentration ash slurry disposal pump shall be positive displacement type. The high concentration slurry shall be disposed in disposal area such that no significant free water is released from the slurry.

What is ash dyke?


Ash Dyke is a storage area to contain huge quantity of ash generated in the process of power generation. Its a kind of tailing dam: made of earth or ash. Ash is discharged into this ash dyke, in the form of slurry through pipelines. This is also known as Wet Disposal System.

PLAN OF ASH DYKES (STARTER & RAISINGS)(WET DISPOSAL)

TYPICAL SECTION THROUGH U/S RAISED DYKE

Dry Ash Mound


24 hour storage of fly ash, shall be provided in the storage silos in case dry ash disposal, mound system is envisaged. Hydrobins for BA decantation Both FA and BA shall be transported by conveyor system to the dry ash disposal area.

Bottom Ash / Coarse Ash Removal System


Economiser Hoppers LP Water
.

Flushing Apparatus

HBN-1

CAT

HBN-2
HP Water LP Water Bottom Ash hopper OFT BAH Gates HBN-3

OFP-1 & 2 HP Water

CG

CG HEs

Bottom Ash / Coarse Ash Removal System Contd..


.

From OFP/Ps

Hydro-bins

Settling Tank
To Hydro-bins Sludge Pumps To Hydro-bins Surge Tank

HP Water / LP Water / MS Water Pumps

Ash Mound