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What is motor control? Theories of motor control- limitations and clinical implications Motor Learning Theories related to skilled learning Factors contributing to motor learning CONCLUSION
WHAT IS MOTOR CONTROL?
The study of the nature and causes of movement 2 issues- postural and balance control movement Interaction of individual, task and the environment
II I I
Reflex theory Hierarchical theory Neuromaturational theory Spatiotemporal adaptation theory Servo mechanistic theories (Loop theories) Cognitive theories “Motor-genre” theory
Motor programming theory Systems theory Dynamical action theory Parallel distributed processing theory Task oriented theories Ecological theory
Sir Charles Sherrington in 1906 wrote book The Interactive Action of the Nervous System reflexes were the building blocks of complex behaviour a reflex requires a stimulus and results in a response He also saw „chaining‟ of simple reflexes Theorists suggest that one reflex becomes the stimulus for another
Movements result from the activation of the muscle groups in characteristic spatial-temporal relationships. “A simple reflex is probably a purely abstract conception, because all parts of the nervous system are connected together and no part of it is probably ever capable of reaction without affecting and being affected by various other parts, and it is a system certainly never absolutely at rest”(1906).
Reflexes cannot be considered the basic unit of behaviour It does not adequately explain and predict movement that occurs in the absence of a sensory stimulus. It does not explain fast movements Chaining model fails to explain the fact that a single stimulus can result in varying responses depending on context and descending commands Chaining also does not explain the ability to produce novel or new movements
Clinical testing of reflexes can allow therapists to predict function Functional skills by retraining motor control would emphasize on enhancing or reducing the effect of various reflexes during motor task.
The term „hierarchy‟ means a series of levels of control with each succeeding level controlling all the previous levels. Dominated by the cerebral cortex It is defined as an organizational structure that is top down. Rudolf Magnus(1920) Georg Schaltenbrand Stephan Weisz (1938) Hughlings Jackson
The hierarchical control structure is characterized BRAIN by a top down Brain stem structure.
NEUROMATURATIONAL THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT
Arnold Gesell and Myrtle McGraw CNS corticalization results in higher levels of control over lower levels of reflexes. primitive movements become voluntary movements Motor development progresses in a cephalocaudal manner Sequence and rate of motor development among infants is consistent.
Motor development is achieved by neural process maturation Cortex including the progressive appearance and disappearance of Midbrain reflexes.
Brainste m& spinal cord
Neuronat omical structure s
Postural Motor reflex developm developm ent ent
Equilibri Bipedal um function reactions Righting Quadripe reactions dal function
Primitive Apedal reflex function
Does not explain dominance of lower level reflexes with increased environmental demands. Does not consider other factors like musculoskeletal changes that affect motor control. Does not provide a foundation for altering the environment as apart of its intervention theory base.
(Bobath 1971; Fiorentino 1973) a major problem with respect to the integration centres for these reflexes exist Does not always bring improvements in functional skills
Therapist using a complete understanding of this and reflexes could determine the neural age of a child or a patient and maturity of CNS. Positioning and handling techniques to treat child with atypical motor development.
SPATIOTEMPORAL PHYSICAL THEORY
Proposed by Gilfoyle, Grady, and Moore (1990) Mc Cormack & Perrin(1997) Developmental-------------------Acquisitional (Hierarchical--------Motor genre------Systems STP theory
What is adaptation? Adaptation involves 4 processes
complex theoretical concepts and assumptions Misinterpret dynamic nature of nervous system Reflex and reaction analysis is approximation of developmental continuum
EVALUATION- High risk infants INTERVENTION
PHYSICAL MS. FUNCTION
SPATIAL PLANE MOVTS.
TEMPOR AL AGE SPAN
VOLIT IONAL MOVT.
SERVOMECHANISTIC THEORIES (“Loop Theories”)
OPEN LOOP CLOSED LOOP 3-4 differences between them Serves as a explanation of motor control Ref:Crutchfield
Relate in particular to highly skilled and rapid movements 2 major components-decision and action Keele (1982) Clinical significance Do not equate average everyday activities with highly skilled athletic activities.
McDonnell,Corkum &Wilson Reflexes and volitional and nonvolitional movements Some 8 theoretical assumptions
limited explanation of the relationship of nonvolitional and volitional movements Musculoskeletal changes during infancy
Involuntary movement and volitional skills Treat effects of primitive reflexes
MOTOR PROGRAMMING THEORIES
Wilson (1961),Frosberg, Grillner and Rossignol (1975), Grillner (1981) CPGs and complex movements The term „motor program‟ is used to identify CPG – a stereotypic and hardwired neural circuit. Pattern Generators- Brooks(1986) Nashner &Woollacot(1979) Milani- Comparetti(1981)
Central motor program cannot be considered as the sole determinant of motor action. Does not provide a developmental guideline for normal motor skill acquisition.
help in assessing abnormal or disordered motor control relearn correct rules for movement and functional task
SYSTEMS OR DISTRIBUTED CONTROL MODELS OF MOTOR CONTROL
Nicolai Bernstein (1967) A heterarchical system Biomechanical aspects Coordinative structures or Synergies Self-regulatory Systems Sensory Components Neurological Aspects- sensory & motor Self-Organizing aspects
DEGREES OF FREEDOM control combined degrees of freedom size principle & pattern generator (synergy) 3 SOURCES OF VARIABILITY anatomical mechanical physiological Skill requires controlling of degrees of freedom
Systematically regulates many degrees of freedom Coordinative structure- a group of muscles constrained to act as a single functional unit E.g. 4 wheels of car Muscles do not work in isolation e.g. Kelso(1982),Fitts Law
Independent muscles constrained together Walk, trot,rack,gallop of a horse EQUILIBRIUM POINT MODEL OF MOTOR CONTROL Fel‟dman (1986) joint stiffness and position are regulated by the length-tension characteristics of the agonist and antagonist muscles
Sensory perceptual processes required for motor output. Nervous system “sets” the desired position by adjusting length-tension relationships of the muscles involved. Mass, stiffness & desired behavior
SENSORY-1) somato-sensory (exteroceptive & proprioceptive) 2) Vestibular 3) Vision-dominant source of information for movement Feed-forward Optical flow
Lee and Aronson(1974) “moving room” experiment Posture-preserving & movement systems MOTOR: sharing of information of systems and subsystems E.g. ATNR in normal fatigued adults (movement + reflex = additional strength) Reflex and voluntary performance blend into one another gradually.
Defines total system and interactions of the parts of the system Change of motion in a system and flow of energy within it Basic laws – living systems– self-organization Huge degrees of freedom to fewer ones Energy- no pattern decay Pattern change-environment changes
Frequency and pattern Brain and self-organizing system
Does not address interaction of individual with environment.
Musculoskeletal and neural system evaluation determines effects on motor control Treatment strategies should focus on impairments within individual motor control system and interacting systems.
DYNAMICAL ACTION THEORY
Esther Thelen and Jenson (1990) A bridge between motor control and motor development It speaks of non-linear properties of system Real-time vs developmental time Rhythmical movements in infants
Appears to presume the unimportant role of nervous system in acquisition of motor skills. No guidelines for motor development
Assessment of physical and dynamical (velocity, inertia, gravity) subsystem Treat weak muscles by altering velocity
PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING THEORY
This theory shows how the nervous system processes information for action. parallel processing BACK PROPAGATION
Back propagation actually does not mimic nervous system processing of information during performance and learning.
How injury within nervous system affects function can be predicted. It could predict a threshold.
Peter Greene Gordan (1987) and Horak(1992) Tasks-fundamental problem-CNS-motor tasks
Lack of consistent agreement about what the fundamental tasks of CNS is. Scientists do not always agree on what the essential elements being controlled within a task.
understanding the role of perceptual, cognitive and action systems in fulfilling everyday‟s tasks.
James Gibson (1960‟s) how we detect information in our environment that is relevant to our actions, and how we use this information to control movement
Less emphasis to the organisation and function of nervous system
Individual as an active explorer of environment
WHICH THEORY OF MOTOR CONTROL IS BEST ?
4/8/2012 9:11 AM
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