Seminar On

Gasoline Direct Injection
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BIJESH P 8th SEM MECHANICAL
4/9/12

Contents:

Introduction Transition of fuel supply Major Objectives of the GDI engine The difference between new GDI and current MPI Basic technical features of GDI Engine Operation Major characteristics of the GDI engine Achievements in GDI
4/9/12

Disadvantage

and four. 4/9/12 . The petrol/gasoline is highly pressurised. as opposed to conventional multi-point fuel injection that happens in the intake tract.stroke petrol engines. gasoline direct injection is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two.INTRODUCTION In internal combustion engines. and injected via a common rail fuel line directly into the combustion chamber of each cylinder. or cylinder port.

Transition of fuel supply 4/9/12 .

Ø Ø Superior power to conventional MPI engines Ultra-low fuel consumption that betters that of even diesel engines WHY NOT CARBURETTOR? Major Objectives of the GDI engine Carburetor has following disadvantages Vapour lock •Perfect air/fuel mixture cannot be obtained •Lack of throttle response •Low volumetric efficiency •Mechanical device •Compromises on emission • 4/9/12 .

Why The GDI ? Advantages of GDI Engines are: Lower Fuel Consumption and More Output •Improved Volumetric Efficiency •Very efficient intake and relatively high compression ratio deliver both high performance and response Click to edit Master subtitle style •Lower octane requirement •More precise air-fuel ratio control •More rapid starting •Reduced CO2 emissions •Improved transient response. • 4/9/12 .

only air comes from the crankcase. at the bottom of the piston stroke. A large portion of the fuel/air Click to edit Master subtitle style mixture entering the cylinder from the crankcase through the intake ports goes directly out.In two-stroke engines The benefits of direct injection are even more pronounced in two-stroke engines. With direct injection. through the exhaust port. because it eliminates much of the pollution they cause. unburned. and fuel is not injected until the piston rises and all ports are closed 4/9/12 . In conventional two-strokes. the exhaust and intake ports are both open at the same time.

The difference between new GDI and current MPI In MPI or Multi-Point Injection. • 4/9/12 . gasoline is directly injected into the cylinder as in a diesel engine •The injection timings are precisely controlled to match load conditions. Click to edit Master subtitle style •In GDI. the fuel is injected to each intake port •In MPI engines there are limits to fuel supply response and the combustion control because the fuel mixes with air before entering the cylinder.

The High Pressure Fuel Pump. § § § 4/9/12 .§ Basic technical features of GDI Engine The Upright Straight Intake Port. The Curved-top Piston. The High Pressure Swirl Injector.

pressure control valve and electronic control unit controls the pressure of the hydraulic system individually for all operating points.Operation • Fuel is delivered to the fuel rail by the high-pressure pump A closed control loop comprising the fuel pressure sensor. The Electronic control unit coordinates the different torque parameters according to the position of the accelerator pedal and undertakes the necessary control actions in the engine. 4/9/12 • • .

Engine Diagram Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 .

fuel injection occurs at the latter stage of the compression stroke and ignition occurs at an ultra-lean air-fuel ratio of 30 to 40 4/9/12 . up to speeds of 120km/h. the GDI engine operates in ultra-lean combustion mode for less fuel consumption.Major characteristics of the GDI engine 1. In this mode. Ultra-lean Combustion Mode Under most normal driving conditions.

Superior Output Mode When the GDI engine is operating with higher loads or at higher speeds. fuel injection takes place during the intake stroke.2. cooler air-fuel mixture that minimized the possibility of engine knocking. This optimizes combustion by ensuring a homogeneous. Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 .

3. In-cylinder Airflow The GDI engine has upright Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 .

they enable sufficient fuel atomization that is mandatory for the GDI even with a relatively low fuel pressure of 50kg/cm2 Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 . And at the same time by applying highly swirling motion to the entire fuel spray.Newly developed high-pressure swirl injectors provide the ideal spray pattern to match each engine operational modes.

is carried toward the spark plug before it can disperse. Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 . The mixture.Combustion Chamber The curved-top piston controls the shape of the air-fuel mixture as well as the airflow inside the combustion chamber. which is injected late in the compression stroke. and has an important role in maintaining a compact air fuel mixture.

Moreover. Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 . it offers greater flexibility in setting the idle speed. its fuel consumption during idling is 40% less.Realization of lower fuel consumption • Fuel Consumption during Idling engine maintains stable combustion even at The GDI low idle speeds. Compared to conventional engines.

the GDI engine uses 35% less fuel than a comparably sized conventional engine Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 . for example.Fuel Consumption during Cruising Drive • At 40km/h.

cools the air for better volumetric efficiency. which occurs in the cylinder at a late stage of the compression stroke.Realization of Superior Output • Improved Volumetric Efficiency Compared to conventional engines. Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 . And the vaporization of fuel. The upright straight intake ports enable smoother air intake. the GDI engine provides better volumetric efficiency.

This allows a high compression ratio of 12.Increased Compression Ratio • The cooling of air inside the cylinder by the vaporization of fuel minimizes engine knocking. and thus improve combustion efficiency. Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 .

Achievements • Engine performance Compared to conventional MPI engines of a comparable size. the GDI engine provides approximately 10% greater output and torque at all speeds. 4/9/12 .

the GDI engine provides outstanding acceleration. The following chart compares the performance of the GDI engine with a conventional MPI engine Click to edit Master subtitle style 4/9/12 .• Vehicle Acceleration In high-output mode.

they handle fuel at significantly higher pressures than indirect injection to edit Master subtitle style systems and the injectors Click themselves must be able to withstand the heat and pressure of combustion inside the cylinder. 4/9/12 .Disadvantage Complexity and Cost : Direct injection systems are more expensive to build because their components must be more rugged -.

respects.Conclusion Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine technology has received considerable attention over the last few years as a way to significantly improve fuel efficiency without making a major shift away from conventional internal combustion Master subtitle styleIn many Click to edit technology. GDI technology represents a further step in the natural evolution of gasoline engine fueling systems. 4/9/12 .

www. 3.howstuffworks. Internal Combustion Engines By: Mathur & Sharma.comstyle Click to edit Master subtitle Wikipedia.References 1. 2.com www. 6. Internal Combustion Engines By: Anand V Domkundwar. 4.org 4/9/12 .in www.mitsubishi-np.autoworld. 5.

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