Cervical Cancer in Malaysia

Mohamad Khairi bin Ghazali Zakiyah Binti Karim

 Hence. where the costs of nationwide organized cytology screening have been a significant limitation.1. Introduction  The burden of cervical cancer in Southeast Asia is moderately high. the use of alternative screening modalities. such as visual inspection of the cervix aided by acetic acid (VIA) with or without magnification. prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination for the prevention of infection and related disease is being considered as an additional cervical cancer control strategy.  The use of Pap testing for cytology-based screening has been highly effective in preventing cervical cancer in industrialized countries and will most likely be effective in countries where screening is limited or nonexistent.  In addition. . is currently under evaluation.

 Fig.  In Southeast Asia.2. cervical cancer incidence (age-standardized rate (ASR) 15.000) is similar for Indonesia and Malaysia.7 per 100. it is the fourth most common cause of death in women in Malaysia. 1 shows the ASR of cervical cancer in countries with existing cancer registries and the high variability within Malaysia . Burden of cervical cancer in Malaysia  Cervical cancer incidence and mortality  Cervical cancer second most common cancer in Malaysia.  Furthermore.

the overall incidence rate is 19.4 per 100.000 women.  Malays (includes Peninsular Malaysia but not East Malaysia) with 10.7 per 100. however differs by ethnic group.000 women.  Indians with 22.000 women.5 per 100. .000 women. In Malaysia.  Chinese women have the highest ASR of 28.8 per 100.

although HPV-18 alone is relatively more frequent compared to the type distribution estimates in the rest of the world. therefore. Malaysia. HPV prevalence in Malaysia  HPV-16 and 18 are the two most common HPV types in Southeast Asia. . the interpretation of these data is limited.3. Five most frequent HPV types in women with cervical cancer in Indonesia. the Philippines.  The estimate for Malaysia is based on a small number of cases (N = 23) and there was a high number of co-infections for HPV16 and 18.  Figure 2. and Thailand [10] and [11].

6 13.8 .for cervical carcinogenesis in Malaysia are shown below: Cofactors Current smoking (% of women) Ever use of oral contraceptives (%) Total fertility Rate (per woman) Malaysia 11.smoking.4. Risk factors for HPV infection and cervical cancer in Malaysia  The prevalence of cofactors . and fertility . oral contraceptive use.4 2.

however. which may reflect the rapid social changes in the country and the increased likelihood of being exposed to HPV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). 5.  Median age at first sexual intercourse was 15 years. .  However.4% (of which 8.3% were males and 2.9% were females) reported having had sexual intercourse. an increasing proportion of adolescents are engaging in premarital sex. In a cross-sectional school survey of 12–19 year old adolescents. this estimate may be underreported given that talking about sex is a culturally taboo subject in Malaysia.

5.  In 1981 screening extended to include all family planning users. e. and non-governmental organizations like the Federation of Family Planning Association of Malaysia (FFPAM) provided Pap smear services as part of a cancer campaign where the Pap testing was available once every 3 years for all females aged 20–65 years.  According to the World Health Organization (WHO) Health Surveys 2001/2002. Current cervical cancer screening programs  In 1969 screening program started using the Pap smear. . university and army hospitals. Pap smear coverage was only 23%.6%) compared to women in other age groups: 18–29 years (14.g.  The highest Pap smear uptake was among women aged 30–39 years (36. 40–49 years (28.  In 1995 various agencies. private clinics and hospitals. 50–59 years (20.8%).6%).9%) and 60– 69 years (5%).: the National Population and Family Development Board (NPFDB).

 In 2005. which contributed only 20.000 smears. screening can continue every 3 years. the Malaysian Ministry of Health (MoH)allocated 3.1%.  Abnormal Pap smears and unsatisfactory ones for evaluation accounted for 0. public health facilities and government hospitals contributed 69% of all Pap smear tests compared to private health facilities.000 to 400.6%.  From 1996 to 2005. with no significant variation in the total number of tests over the years. If both smears are normal.55 million MYR (~18 million CZK) for free Pap smear tests to women attending public health facilities. the annual number of Pap tests ranged from 350. The 2003 National Guidelines on Pap Smear Screening recommended that all sexually active women aged 20–65 years should attend screening annually for two consecutive years.  In 2003. The predominant screening method is conventional cytology with only a few public health services and the private sector offering liquid-based cytology. . respectively.86% and 3.

 MoH has taken the initiative to also develop a National Colposcopic Training program and to evaluate the role of VIA and cryotherapy as modalities for secondary prevention. Selangor and in Mersing. Johor Baharu with completion targeted for 2011. The project is currently undertaken in Klang.  This project also aims to increase Pap smear coverage to 75% among women aged 20–65 years. a demonstration project on VIA and cryotherapy is in its early implementation phase in the low socioeconomic district of Sik in the northern state of Peninsular Malaysia. With support from WHO. The 1991 Bethesda reporting system is still in use and an effort to review the 2004 Pap Smear Guide Book is underway. . and to develop a national Pap smear registry.  MoH has initiated a project to develop a centralized database system for both public and private sectors to determine the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of an organized screening program to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer through a call-recall system.

media electronics. the MoH. non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and pharmaceutical companies are actively involved in increasing knowledge on HPV and cervical cancer using mass media..  Currently.  A National Immunization Technical Committee under the Disease Control Division of MoH has been given the responsibility to study and make recommendations on the role of the HPV vaccine in Malaysia. posters and pamphlets. Merck & Co. Cervical cancer prevention and HPV vaccination  The Malaysia Drug Authority approved the use of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (Gardasil®.6. Inc. . NJ. USA) in October 2006  Other studies on the prevalence of HPV and invasive cervical cancer are also underway.. Whitehouse Station.

Tran Van Thuan. the Philippines.springerlink. Malaysia. Rini Noviani.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TD44TD5VXVD&_user=1490772&_coverDate=08%2F19%2F2008&_rdoc=1&_fmt=full&_ orig=search&_cdi=5188&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=110 9377138&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000053052&_version=1&_urlVersi on=0&_userid=1490772&md5=d2012b87d64e52f1e5cd5d4f7d5af4fd#secx5  http://www. Ngelangel.com/content/45m35887r0223341/ .sciencedirect. Karly S. Limpaphayom. Domingoa.nst. Thailand and Vietnam: Efren J. Quinn  http://www. Louie and Michael A. ICO Monograph Series on HPV and Cervical Cancer: Asia Pacific Regional Report  Epidemiology and Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Indonesia.com. Corazon A.References  Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved. Khunying K.my/articles/12cervic/Article/index_html  http://www. Mohd Rushdan Md Noor.

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