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Circulatory System

By: Austin Mitchell Scallan

Functions
The Circulatory system is basically the delivery system of the body, transporting hormones, gases such as oxygen, nutrients and fresh blood cells. There are three types of blood cells; Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Red Blood Cells


Red Blood Cells: Primarily used to transport gases such as Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen. Developed in the marrow of bones, red blood cells comprise mostly of haemoglobin which gives blood its red color. The cells life span varies from 100-120 days. A quarter of cells in the human body are red blood cells.

White Blood Cells


White blood cells play a primary role in fighting foreign bodies such as infectious disease. When healthy, a human will only have 1% of their blood comprising of white blood cells, but white blood cells will increase based on the detection of a foreign body, depending on how harmful it is. White blood cells are also formed in bone marrow and can last from a few hour to a few years, depending on the variety.

Platelet
Platelets are simply spare parts that repair damaged tissue, such as a scab that forms on a scrape on your knee.

Blood Vessels
Blood Vessels are the highways that allow blood to flow throughout our body. There are five various types of blood vessel; three major and two sub groups.

Arteries
Arteries carry blood away oxygenated blood from the heart (except the pulmonary and umbilical arteries). Blood pressure is typically higher in arteries. The pulmonary arteries carry unoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. Umbilical artery carry un-oxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta in the umbilical cord. Blood in the arteries (with the exception of the umbilical and pulmonary arteries) is usually a lighter shade of red due to the oxygen.

Capillaries
Capillaries are the smallest of the blood vessels, only one cell think. Capillaries connect the arterioles and venules, allowing the exchange of gases, water, nutrients and waste products from blood to tissue.

Veins
Veins are the opposite of their arteries counter parts carrying un-oxygenated blood from throughout the body back to the heart (besides the pulmonary and umbilical veins). The pulmonary veins deliver oxygenated blood to the heart. Umbilical vein carry oxygenated bloods from the placenta to the fetus. Blood is typically darker in veins

Arterioles
Arterioles connect the arteries and capillaries. They play an essential role in reducing blood flow and pressure so that blood can successfully flow in the capillaries, a process known as vascular resistance. Arterioles will increase or decrease in diameter when certain hormones are releases.

Venule
The venules are connected to the capillaries, taking un-oxygenated blood from them and delivering it to the veins.

Heart
The heart is found in all animals and its primary function is to act as a pump that pumps blood filled with oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. The average human heart beats 72 beats per second.

Pericardium
The Pericardium is the actual sac that contains the heart. Its walls provides lubrication and protection.

Pulmonary Veins
The pulmonary veins deliver oxygenated blood to the atrium from the lungs.

Left Atrium
The left atrium is one of the our heartchambers. Oxygenated veins from the pulmonary veins flows in which is then pumed into the left ventricle.

Left Ventricle
The left ventricle receives the oxygenated blood from the mitral valve and rapidly pumps it into the aorta via the aortic valve.

Aorta
The largest artery in the body, the aorta extends from the left ventricle of the heart to the abdomen. There it separates into two smaller arteries, the common iliac. The aorta is the initial point in which oxygenated blood leaves the heart to spread throughout the body.

Systemic Circuit
Oxygenated blood flows down the aorta, branching into smaller arteries. From there, blood travels through the arterioles to the capillaries and eventually to the tissue. The un-oxygenated then flows from the capillaries to the venules which proceeds into the smaller veins and eventually the superior and inferior vena cava.

Inferior Vena Cava


The inferior vena cava carries un-oxygenated blood from the lower body into the right atrium via the mitral valve.

Superior Vena Cava


The superior vena cava carries un-oxygenated blood from the upper body into the right atrium.

Right Atrium
The right atrium receives un-oxygenated blood from the superior and inferior vena cava. The right atrium pumps this blood to the right ventricle via the tricuspid valve.

Right Ventricle
After receiving the un-oxygenated blood from the right atrium, the right ventricle pumps the blood through the pulmonary valve and pulmonary trunk into the pulmonary artery.

Pulmonary Arteries
The pulmonary arteries carry un-oxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.

Pulmonary Circuit
The pulmonary arteries deliver un-oxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs where red blood cells release carbon dioxide that is to be exhaled from the body. Oxygen then diffuses into the blood stream and red blood cells which then flows into the pulmonary veins and eventually the left atrium, thus beginning the flow of blood through out the body.

Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels. There are three types of blood pressure; diastolic (minimum) systolic (maximum) and mean (average). Blood pressure is measured in the inside of the elbow at the brachial artery by a sphygmomanometer, which wraps around the arm, which has air pumped into it. When the air is released, the first sound heard through the stethoscope is used to measure the systolic pressure. When there are no more sounds, the diastolic pressure is measured. Normal blood pressure is in a range of 120/80

Symptoms of High Blood Pressure


High blood pressure causes your blood to flow through your body with to much force. This damages the walls of arteries, causing he build up of plaque, or fat and calcium build up. This triggers atherosclerosis, or hardening of arteries. This narrows arteries, damaging body organs. This can lead to Coronary Heart Disease, a Heart Attack, Strokes, Kidney Failure, Eye Damage and Peripheral Arterial Disease. High Blood pressure is above 140/90. High blood pressure can be cause by stress, and unhealthy diet, obesity, and even genetically through family history and is even more common in African and Native Americans.

Symptoms of Low Blood Pressure


Low blood pressure is almost never serious but cause lightheadedness and dizziness. Rarely, Postural Hypertension, a failure of the automatic nervous system, can occur. Heat exhaustion, pregnancy, hormonal problems, and some medicines can cause low blood pressure.

Diseases and conditions


Blood Clots: The irregular formation of platelets over an injury can cause a blood clot. Blood clots can slow blood flow, resulting in death of tissue. Vascular Disease: Endothelial cell dysfunction causes white blood cells to infiltrate the blood vessel wall. This causes the wall to thicken, causing plaque build up. Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: Caused by an abnormal accessory electrical conduction pathway between ventricles and atria, Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome causes dizziness shortness of breath, syncope, and palpitations.