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Critical Evaluation of Freud Chhabra (13) Ashmeet
1. 2. 3.
Click to edit Master subtitle style Sakshi Jain (24)
Hitansh Makhecha (43)
+ Sigmund Freud
genius is not (generally) in doubt, but the precise nature of his achievement is still the source of much debate
Freud really discovered the question of the efficacy of psychoanalysis as a treatment for neurotic illnesses. if anything. 4/10/12 (b) (c) (d) .+ Here we will confine ourselves to: (a) the evaluation of Freud’s claim that his theory is a scientific one the question of the theory’s coherence the dispute concerning what.
4/10/12 . and repeatedly asserted that the significance of psychoanalysis is that it is a new science. incorporating a new scientific method of dealing with the mind and with mental illness.a. + The Claim to Scientific Status n This is a crucially important issue since Freud saw himself first and foremost as a pioneering scientist.
and therefore falsifiable. 4/10/12 . conversely. at least in principle.+ The Claim to Scientific Status n Every genuine scientific theory must be testable. it is scientific. The Logic of Scientific Discovery). K. In other words. if a theory is incompatible with possible observations. a theory which is compatible with all possible observations is unscientific (see Popper.
and while this does not. rob it of all value. if false.” the answer is “Nothing” because the theory is compatible with every possible state of affairs. it certainly diminishes its intellectual status as projected by its strongest advocates. Hence it is concluded that the theory is not scientific. 4/10/12 . as some critics claim. would show the whole theory to be false?.+ The Claim to Scientific Status n It is argued that nothing of the kind is possible with respect to Freud’s theory–it is not falsifiable. including Freud himself. If the question is asked: “What does this theory imply which.
+ ASHMEET CHHABRA (13) 4/10/12 .
b. even to the layman. at the very least. + The Coherence of the Theory nA related (but perhaps more serious) point is that the coherence of the theory is. is attractive about the theory. 4/10/12 n What . is that it seems to offer us long sought-after and much needed causal explanations for conditions which have been a source of a great deal of human misery. questionable.
+ The Coherence of the Theory n The thesis that neuroses are caused by unconscious conflicts buried deep in the unconscious mind in the form of repressed libidinal energy would appear to offer us. at last. and further show us how they are related to the psychology of the ‘normal’ person. and 4/10/12 n However. . an insight in the causal mechanism underlying these abnormal psychological conditions as they are expressed in human behavior. even this is questionable.
and must be. when it is said that an event X causes another event Y to happen. but in these latter cases there are clear ‘correspondence rules’ 4/10/12 connecting the unobservable causes n It . as in science causes are sometimes unobservable (sub-atomic particles. independently identifiable. both X and Y are. and so forth). molecular structures. radio and electromagnetic waves.+ The Coherence of the Theory n In general. is true that this is not always a simple process.
” rather he asserts: “This is the behavior. which are said to be the unobservable causes of certain forms of behavior But there are no correspondence rules for these alleged causes–they cannot be identified except by reference to the behavior which they are said to cause (that is. therefore its unconscious cause must exist”).+ The Coherence of the Theory n The difficulty with Freud’s theory is that it offers us entities (for example repressed unconscious conflicts). and that is its behavioral effect. the analyst does not demonstratively assert: “This is the unconscious cause. and this does raise serious doubts as to whether Freud’s 4/10/12 theory .
which met with fierce animosity. particularly of young girls (the vast majority of hysterics are women). He did in fact offer an early “seduction theory” of neuroses. However. What he discovered. but no less critical level. it has been suggested. it has been alleged that Freud did make a genuine discovery which he was initially prepared to reveal to the world. Freud’s Discovery? + n At a less theoretical. even in respectable nineteenth century Vienna. 4/10/12 n n .c. the response he encountered was so ferociously hostile that he masked his findings and offered his theory of the unconscious in its place . was the extreme prevalence of child sexual abuse. and which he quickly withdrew and replaced with the theory of the unconscious.
+ The Efficacy of Psychoanalytic Therapy n It does not follow that. or even false. but patients did sometimes 4/10/12 actually benefit from the treatment!). if Freud’s theory is unscientific. it cannot provide us with a basis for the beneficial treatment of neurotic illness because the relationship between a theory’s truth or falsity and its utilityvalue is far from being an isomorphic one.d. . (The theory upon which the use of leeches to bleed patients in eighteenth century medicine was based was quite spurious.
say. One of the problems here is that it is difficult to specify what counts as a cure for a neurotic illness as distinct. leading to negative consequences. the efficiency of a given method of treatment is usually clinically measured by means of a control group–the proportion of patients suffering from a given 4/10/12 disorder who are cured by treatment X is n n . In general. from a mere alleviation of the symptoms.+ The Efficacy of Psychoanalytic Therapy n And of course even a true theory might be badly applied. however.
. the question of the therapeutic effectiveness of psychoanalysis remains an open and controversial4/10/12 one.+ The Efficacy of Psychoanalytic Therapy n Such clinical tests as have been conducted indicate that the proportion of patients who have benefited from psychoanalytic treatment does not diverge significantly from the proportion who recover spontaneously or as a result of other forms of intervention in the control groups used. n So.
+ HITANSH MAKHECHA (43) 4/10/12 .
+ Other criticism n To doubts about the reliability of Freud's methods . reliance on subjectivity. "To take flowers from a girl.free association." he states. For example. "means to deflower her. and by his claims to be able to recognise intuitively what something "truly means"." 4/10/12 . he reports that during self-analysis he recalled a childhood incident in which he snatched flowers from a girl.have to be added doubts about the characteristic style of Freud's reasoning. exemplified by his analyses of dreams. the dangers of suggestion .
Freud meditated on . and diagnosed Emma as suffering from it. After her nose had bled and suppurated for many days.+ Other criticism n In a letter to Jung. another surgeon found a mass of surgical gauze left in the wound. One has only to remember the case of Emma Eckstein. He got his colleague Wilhelm Fliess to remove the turbinate bone from her nose. Freud spoke of his "serene confidence" in his methods. Its removal caused a near-fatal haemorrhage. The bleeding continued 4/10/12 intermittently for months. few critics can share it. Freud claimed to have discovered a "nasal reflex neurosis" and linked it to excessive masturbation.
Horton calls Freud's dream theory "dangerously inaccurate" and Eysenck claims that Freud "set psychiatry back one hundred years" and that "what is true in his theories is not new and what is new in his theories is not true" 4/10/12 .+ Other criticism n Lydiard H.
and Webster calls psychoanalysis "perhaps the most complex and successful" pseudoscience in history 4/10/12 .+ Other criticism n Peter Medawar. made the oft-quoted remark that psychoanalysis is the "most stupendous intellectual confidence trick of the twentieth century". a Nobel Prize winning immunologist.
4/10/12 n All . of freudian problems originate from libido/sex.+ What we found? n Specific criticism related to freuds iceberg(Superego-ego-id): There are infinite such parts of the brain as opposed to freudian beliefs of just 3 parts. This appears rather hard to believe.
org/wiki/Sigmund_Freud 4/10/12 .gend http://en.guardian.iep.+ Bibliography n n n http://www.wikipedia.edu/freud http://www.co.utm.uk/books/2002/jun/22/socialsciences.
+ THANK YOU! 4/10/12 .
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