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SANDEEP KUMAR RANA 14231 ECE-II
Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes ambient water temperature. .
When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature. and affects ecosystem composition. the change in temperature decreases oxygen supply. Urban runoff–storm water discharged to surface waters from roads and parking lots–can also be a source of elevated water temperatures.CAUSE… A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. .
4. resulting in a shorter lifespan and species overpopulation. amphibians and copepods. contributing to anaerobic conditions. This can cause an algae bloom which reduces oxygen levels. 2. This can harm aquatic animals such as fish. High temperature limits oxygen dispersion into deeper waters. 3. . Temperature changes of even one to two degrees Celsius can cause significant changes in organism metabolism and other adverse cellular biology effects. Primary producers are affected by warm water because higher water temperature increases plant growth rates. Elevated temperature typically decreases the level of dissolved oxygen in water.Ecological effects — warm water 1. This can lead to increased bacteria levels when there is ample food supply.
Due to the sudden fall of water temperature the contraction on dam and bridge pylon may take place. where many rivers have warmer temperature regimes.Ecological effects — cold water Releases of unnaturally cold water from reservoirs can dramatically change the fish and macroinvertebrate fauna of rivers. and macroinvertebrate fauna have been drastically altered. and reduce river productivity. native fish species have been eliminated. . In Australia.
" The latter process can cause thermal pollution of the receiving waters. . chemical plant. as an alternative to cooling towers or discharging of heated water to a nearby river or coastal bay. a process known as "once-through cooling. Cooling ponds are also sometimes used with air conditioning systems in large buildings as an alternative to cooling towers. Cooling ponds are used where sufficient land is available.Control of thermal pollution A cooling pond is a man-made body of water primarily formed for the purpose of supplying cooling water to a nearby power plant or industrial facility such as a petroleum refinery. steel mill or smelter. pulp and paper mill.
or rectangular structures (as in Image 2) that can be over 40 metres tall and 80 metres long. chemical plants. They are often associated with nuclear power plants in popular culture. while larger ones are constructed on site. The towers vary in size from small rooftop units to very large hyperboloid structures (as in Image 1) that can be up to 200 metres tall and 100 metres in diameter. . Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the drybulb air temperature. Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries. although cooling towers are constructed on many types of buildings. Smaller towers are normally factory-built.Cooling towers Cooling towers are heat removal devices used to transfer process waste heat to the atmosphere. power stations and building cooling.
or by other means. By contrast... CHP captures some or all of the by-product heat for heating purposes. flue gas. either very close to the plant.. This is also called Combined Heat and Power District Heating or CHPDH.… Cogeneration (also combined heat and power..Cogeneration. CHP) is the use of a heat engine or a power station to simultaneously generate both electricity and useful heat.. Small CHP plants are an example of decentralized energy. or—especially in Scandinavia and eastern Europe—as hot water for district heating with temperatures ranging from approximately 80 to 130 °C. This can be released into the natural environment through cooling towers. All thermal power plants emit a certain amount of heat during electricity generation. .
Spray Pond.… An arrangement for cooling water by spraying it into the free atmosphere...5–0. The type and number of nozzles and the size of the spray pond’s area are chosen according to the quantity of water being cooled. Spray ponds are simpler to build and operate than cooling towers. and so on in circulating water supply systems for industrial enterprises. Spray ponds are usually used to reduce the temperature of water that is cooling compressors. The cooling effect is primarily due to the evaporation of part of the sprayed water. (The evaporation of 1 percent of the water lowers its temperature by approximately 6° C. heat-exchange apparatus. their unit cooling capacity is relatively small and depends to an appreciable extent on wind velocity and direction. However. the water is sprayed from nozzles at a height of 1 to 1. .7 kilogram-force per cm2).5 m above the water level in the pond. transformers. The gauge pressure of the water in the pipes at the nozzles is between 50 and 70 kg/m2 (0.) To create the requisite contact surface with the air..
2. oil or gas. Burn less coal. Rather.0 then it will convert 100% of heat energy to mechanical energy. we should aim at maximizing the efficiency of heat engines (steam. So there will be no loss of heat to the environment.Other control of Thermal Pollution 1. Theoretically. Avoid consuming energy more than necessity. IC. Temperature signal conditioners accept outputs from temperature measurement devices such as resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). amplify. or to levels suitable for digitization 5. . Reduce mechanical friction in any rotating parts. exhaust or material handling. This is practically impossible. when efficiency of any heat engine is equal to 1. thermocouples. nuclear etc) so that heat loss is minimum. Industrial fans and industrial blowers and commercial fans and blowers are designed to move air and/or powders in industrial and commercial settings. Typical applications include air circulation for personnel. 3. 4. and thermistors. and/or convert these outputs to digital signals. They then filter.