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Day 20 April

th 10

Chapter 14

We will finish the semester with Chapters 14, 15, and 16. They will be on your final so start reading if need be!

Exam
I threw out 6 questions from Exam Three including the two that had pictures on them that didnt show up. Grades for Exam Three were much better! I will post an Excel Spreadsheet to help you figure out your grades for the end of the semester.

Currently, the way your grade is figured out


Grade Distribution: Points will be distributed as follows: Four exam grades 60% Lab Grade = 25% Quiz, Participation, and Homework Grade = 10% (Total days in attendance over the semester (can miss 4 days)) Clicker 5%

Chapter 14: Population Ecology

Planet at capacity: patterns of population growth


Lectures by Mark Manteuffel, St. Louis Community College; Clicker Questions by Kristen Curran, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

14.1 What is ecology?

How many lobsters should you allow each fisherman to take each day? Each year? Should you require that certain lobsters be thrown back? If so, should they be the biggest or the smallest? Does it matter whether they are males or females? Is it best to increase the population size or should it be maintained at current levels? But wait a minute, forget about these obviously complex questions and start with a seemingly simpler question: How many lobsters currently live in the waters off the coast of Maine? Is it even possible to have a clue as to what this number is?

Welcome to ecology.

In your own neighborhood, which list below defines a biological community?


1) The humans living in your neighborhood. 2) The humans, birds, insects, and other animals living in your neighborhood. 3) The animals (including humans) as well as the plants living in your neighborhood. 4) The animals and plants and the type of physical environment around your neighborhood.

In your own neighborhood, which list below defines a biological community?


1) The humans living in your neighborhood. 2) The humans, birds, insects, and other animals living in your neighborhood. 3) The animals (including humans) as well as the plants living in your neighborhood. 4) The animals and plants and the type of physical environment around your neighborhood.

In stable populations,
How

many of the five million eggs that a female cod might lay over the course of her life will, on average, survive and grow to adulthood? leaves more surviving offspring, a pair of elephants or a pair of rabbits?

Who

14.4 A populations growth is limited by its environment.

Density-dependent Factors
The

limitations on a populations growth that are a consequence of population density ceiling on growth is the carrying capacity, K, of the environment.

This

What is the carrying capacity of the environment for the population indicated in the graph?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

7 6 5

Population size (x 1000)

4
3 2

Time

What is the carrying capacity of the environment for the population indicated in the graph?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

7 6 5

Population size (x 1000)

4
3 2

Time

Many states have a problem with an increasing deer population. How can we cause a decrease in the growth of deer population?
1. Increase the number of natural predators in the state. 2. Provide better habitat for the deer. 3. Limit the number of deer taken during hunting season. 4. All of the above.

Many states have a problem with an increasing deer population. How can we cause a decrease in the growth of deer population?
1. Increase the number of natural predators in the state. 2. Provide better habitat for the deer. 3. Limit the number of deer taken during hunting season. 4. All of the above.

Density-independent Forces
Factors

that strike populations without regard for the size of the population weather-based

Mostly

Bad

luck for a species fire, earthquake, lightening, flood.

How many people can earth support?


Why does the answer keep increasing?

14.5 Some populations cycle between large and small.

Swarms of locusts acting as a mob

You would expect population oscillations in which example?


1. A population of pine trees in a forest. 2. A population of angelfish in a coral reef. 3. A population of small mammals and their predators increase and decrease over time. 4. The populations of a flightless bird on an isolated island declines dramatically after introduction of cats.

You would expect population oscillations in which example?


1. A population of pine trees in a forest. 2. A population of angelfish in a coral reef. 3. A population of small mammals and their predators increase and decrease over time. 4. The populations of a flightless bird on an isolated island declines dramatically after introduction of cats.

Virtually all natural resource managers in the U.S. government will fail to do their job as mandated.
Why?

What We Often Do Not Know


Population Number Stability Which

carrying capacity

of individuals alive of carrying capacity from year to year

individuals to harvest

Huge vampire bat Annoying to the people, so they killed them Vital part of the rainforest ecosystem Without batshit the entire ecosystem collapses. So, do we save these annoying beasts?

When fighting cockroach infestations, it is more effective to try and kill females as opposed to males.
Why?

Do any animals mate themselves to death?


Why?

Why all the variation?


Is

one strategy better than others, evolutionarily?

There are many

challenge of:

possible responses to the

when to reproduce, how often to reproduce and how much to reproduce

Why do humans put off mating so much longer than cats or mice?

We would expect slow population growth for which example?


1. 2. 3. 4. Cockroach Dandelion Elephant Frog

We would expect slow population growth for which example?


1. 2. 3. 4. Cockroach Dandelion Elephant Frog

Which survivorship curve would you match to a population of humans?

1. Type I 2. Type II 3. Type III

Which survivorship curve would you match to a population of humans?

1. Type I 2. Type II 3. Type III