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Darshana Unnikrishnan Reg. No: 110925010 M.Tech Control Systems

CONTENTS

• • • • • • • Introduction Biomimetic design goals Shock tolerance Force bandwidth Energy economy Conclusion References

• Because of their passive nature. such prosthesis cannot generate more mechanical energy than is stored during each walking step. • Commercially available prosthesis comprise spring structures that store and release elastic energy while walking. especially at moderate to fast walking speeds.INTRODUCTION • Compared to intact persons.walking amputees require 10-60% more metabolic energy. . • In contrast. the human ankle performs positive net work and has greater peak power over stance period.

a powered prosthesis must be position-and impedancecontrollable. .. • Robotic ankle controllers follow preplanned kinematic trajectories during walking. • Ankle-foot mechanisms for humanoid robots are often too heavy or not sufficiently powerful to meet the human-like specifications required for a powered prosthesis. • Also. • But human ankle is believed to operate in impedance control mode during stance and position control mode during swing. • A transtibial amputee overcomes these energy deficiencies by using hamstring muscles to aggressively extend the hip throughout early stance.Cont.

Biomimetic design goals • Size and mass: – prosthesis height is 18cm from the ground. • Torque and speed: – Peak velocity = 3.6 + 0. – Prosthesis mass is 2.2 Nm/kg – Power = 3 + 1 W/kg • Torque bandwidth: – defined as that frequency range over which 70% of the total signal power was captured.5 Hz. – Bandwidth = 3.6 + 0. .5% of the total mass of the body.2 rad/s – Torque = 1.

21 + 0. height. walking at a self-selected speed of 1. “ankle-foot prosthesis for a nominal male subject. and 27 cm.25 m/s. • Controlled dorsiflexion stiffness: – The average human ankle stiffness per unit body mass at a self-selected walking speed is 8 + 1 Nm/rad/kg. 175 cm. and foot length are 78 kg.Cont… • Net positive work: – Average positive work done at the human ankle per unit body mass for self-selected speed is 0. whose body mass.05 J/kg. respectively” .

• To understand how much series compliance is needed.Shock Tolerance • Series motor compliance has been used in humanoid leg design to effectively lower shock loads and protect the motor transmission from damage. Me = ImR2 Fe = ¼ TmR be = ¼ bmR . we combine a linear model of an ankle-foot prosthesis with a series elastic actuator( SEA).

as foot mass is relatively small compared with the effective motor inertia. .Cont… • Me is the effective mass • Im is the rotary internal inertia • Fe is the linear motor force • be is the damping • bm is motor friction from bearings and brushes • Assume that the foot is a rigid body of negligible mass.

the negative work done on the leading leg is increasing from 6. • In the study. • To determine the series stiffness that adequately protects the transmission.00 m/s.Cont… • the trailing leg performs positive external work on the body’s center of mass. • the leading leg performs predominantly negative external work.75m/s to 26.5 J at 0. .8 J at the maximum walking speed of 2. we assume that the prosthesis worn on the leading leg has to absorb all 27 J of energy during anklecontrolled plantar flexion.

Torque (Nm/kg) Ankle angle (rad) Fig 1: Ankle torque is plotted versus ankle angle .

– a ballscrew transmission (Nook ECN-10030-LG.Cont… • Components used: – a 200-W dc brushless motor (Maxon EC-Powermax 30) • Im = ¼ 30.250 Ns/m based on experimental measurements.4 g/cm2 • be = 8. . 10 mm33 mm) • specifically sized for a nominal male foot size of 27cm • maximum transmission load rating of 5 kN • A series stiffness value of 600 kN/m results in a peak transmission force approximately equal to the 5-kNload limit of the ball-screw transmission.

FORCE BANDWIDTH • The actuator system should not saturate within the desired operating range of torque and speed. • In series compliance. • 7-Hz open-loop torque bandwidth. because of motor saturation. • Find the series compliance necessary to produce at least that bandwidth by equating θ equal to zero. . the openloop force bandwidth is reduced when a spring is placed in series with the motor and transmission.

Fig 2: Series Compliance .

• With parallel elasticity. . the maximum level of series stiffness that adequately protects the transmission from damage during heel strike fails to satisfy bandwidth requirements. the open loop bandwidth becomes 20Hz.• In summary. • Thus parallel motor elasticity is introduced to the motor architecture.

Fig 3: A powered prosthesis with both series and parallel elasticity .

• Energy economy is the electrical energy required to transport unit body weight (amputee + prosthesis) in unit distance. • To calculate the values of stiffness for the series and parallel springs that minimize the prosthesis COT.ENERGY ECONOMY • A powered prosthesis must operate for at least one full day on a single battery charge. consider the standard dc motor model. .

• The prosthesis COT is calculated as 0. • Li-Polymer battery (0.05.22-kg) would enable 5. .000 steps of powered walking.

Fig 4: Powered ankle-foot prosthesis with series and parallel elasticity. .

we select a parallel stiffness that supplies the necessary ankle stiffness during early stance period dorsiflexion. . and exoskeletal applications. orthotic. we can apply the ankle-foot design to robotic.CONCLUSION • The minimum level of series compliance that adequately protects the transmission from damage during foot collision fails to satisfy bandwidth requirements. parallel motor elasticity is used to lower the forces borne by the SEA. • In future investigations. • To minimize prosthesis COT and motor or transmission size. • Thus. enhancing system force bandwidth.

R. J. Berbrayer. 3. no. 3. J. . 111– 119. ‘‘Analysis of mechanical and metabolic factors in the gait of congenital below knee amputees: A comparison of the SACH and Seattle Feet. Phys.. E. P. no. 2) E. 3) G. Med. 55. Rehabil. and D. L. Reyes. S. H. 31. Physiol. Gonzalez. and R. P. 1973. Corcoran. Longmuir. ‘‘Energy expenditure in B/K amputees: Correlation with stump length. pp. Colborne.’’ Arch.. J. 1974.’’ Eur.REFERENCE 1) N. 173–185. G. Med. 272–278. vol. ‘‘Energy/speed relation of below-knee amputees walking on motor-driven treadmill.. Appl. Naumann.’’ Am. pp. Molen. pp. Phys. no. 71. 1992. vol. vol. Rehabil. 5.

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