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 Training is a process through which an

employee develops the knowledge, skills, and abilities to perform a job. Development is a process that provides growth opportunities to learn beyond essential competence to build individual and organizational effectiveness.

What is Training?
Noun Meaning: activity leading to skilled behavior Synonyms: grooming, preparation
 Training refers traditionally and meaningfully to what many folk

now grandiloquently term professional development.
 Training & Development is the field concerned with workplace

learning to improve performance.
 In military, training means to drill and keep in shape in case of

deployment orders (i.e. the same as exercise, only it's for military units).

It is widely recognised that training is a powerful instrument for improving staff productivity through development of people. But what is not appreciated is the fact that training is a scientific field, and like any other scientific activity demands exactitude of objectives and methods.

 "In the 21st century the education and skills

of the work force will end up being the dominant competitive weapon." [Lester Thurow  There are two options available:  Organizations can buy skills through hiring, or  they can develop skills through training and development (T&D) activities

Investment in US on Training
 Investment in T&D is highly variable across

U.S. employers. In 1995, U.S. organizations allocated approximately $52.2 billion for formal employee T&D (Industry Report, 1995).

Why Training ? Any trainer faces this question from others as well as from his / her inner self.  What is the purpose?  Is it of any use?  Is it worth it ? .

is visible all around us. in our culture . the belief must be based on hard fact or clear observable difference created by a training input. A belief in training without this data is blind and is likely to be easily toppled by a few powerful arguments. It indicates a gross shortage .  The impact of training or the lack of it . Conversely . If the trainer believes that there is enormous value in training . we seem to protest only when we are affected.

indicates gross training failure. A lack of self-respect is a training failure and such instances are common around us.  Just yesterday I noticed a person. of training competence across the entire training spectrum starting from nursery to Leadership development programs for the top management of organizations. touching the knees of the cop to not to do his challan. . who was about to be challaned by a cop. A democratic country consisting of people who do not respect themselves and who only wake up from slumber when they themselves are adversely affected.

In schools . What about the ability to distinguish between right and wrong . have defined ourselves . communicating . narrowly . who are able to stand up for what we think is right. Why is this happening? Perhaps our perspectives as trainers are skewed. Though freedom of expression is enshrined in our constitution . we develop the competence of children in the areas of writing. what about the development of the instinct of sharing and for fighting for what is right . calculate and in addition to being aware of who the president of India is. what about direction in life . the child would be able to write. general knowledge and mathematical ability. Most of the people grovel in front of power. what about the instinct towards freedom say freedom of expression. there are few among us .what about the instinct towards self-respect. speak. too . We as trainers . So . .

as well as orientation development. is high. . Aspiration for jobs where one does not have to stretch oneself to achieve in addition to unaccountable exercise of power. perception expansion.  We need to shift our perspective from the development of purely functional competencies to behavioural competencies. This indicates a shortcoming of the trainers as well as the training processes that the people have been exposed to during their lifetimes. No wonder there are few students who aspire to be entrepreneurs. lifestyle development.

Look at the impact. The entire"Bhagwat Gita" . functional competence can create negative results. . without orientation. In fact. The entire functional competence of Arjun is zilch without the distinction between right and wrong. is focussed on developing orientation.

We have trapped ourselves into thinking about functional competence only. Too little or no focus on orientation and lifestyle development.  We as trainers have not synthesized . taking to crime?  Too much focus on the development of functional competencies and their assessment through exams. . Why is there a rising incidence of children of well to do families. the key parameters of holistic development.

and/or are too. But there are many limitations of on-the-job training: On-the-job. The job contents or the methods of performing the job are changing fast because of knowledge explosion. Jobs involving certain concepts.. Skills in certain areas such as innovativeness. pressure from competititors etc. a person learns only ―how‖ of a job and not ―why‖ of job. human relations and analysis of data need specialised knowledge. innovations. Jobs of a routine and repetitive nature are best learnt while actually doing the job. their ability to look beyond their current job and how they must adapt itself to these anticipated changes. . training is the answer.Need for formal training  1. 2. which can not be learnt on-thejob. planning. 4. When organisations wishes to give futuristic orientation to people. These changes are best absorbed by formal training. 3. complicated to be given to a novice. can not be learnt on-the-job. environmental changes. 5.

then based on the performance gaps . First we assess the performance of the person . Traditionally .Identifying Training Needs  The effectiveness of the training function is heavily dependent upon effectiveness of processes used to identifying training needs. this seems to be the correct way of doing things. Logically. we identify the training needs. This is the first critical step on the road to competence development and performance enhancement. it deserves. On examining form after form in companies ranging from textile companies to technology companies to direct marketing companies.  An inadequacy at this stage cascades to all the subsequent training processes. Logically absolutely correct. I have seldom seen organizations give this stage the importance. A column follows this on training needs. we find that the appraisal process is focused on attribute assessment. training needs analysis got integrated into the yearly appraisal form. After reality testing. . wrong.

would be incorrect. The subsequent training needs identified. The correlation between attribute assessment and actual performance of the person is a question mark.attribute assessment puts us on the wrong track from the word "Go". when we actually want to go to Tokyo.  This mistake gets multiplied and the blinkers of this framework get totally clogged if this is the only system of identifying training needs. This is like going to New York . This is visible in the large amount of heartburn among employees after the appraisal process is over. Thus . even if we follow the process vigorously. .

This is a good statement of intention but it conveys little about the quality of the process of consultation. the perception of the team leader responsible for filling the appraisal form is limited. Thereafter.  I still remember the words of a learned HR head who when responding to a querry on the process of identifying leadership competencies said . This statement by itself indicates the lack of creative effort in exploring alternative methods of identifying training needs. it is of no use. ."We identify them in consultation with the line managers‖. Moreover . even if we have a great system of measuring training effectiveness. This invariably results in nonvalue adding statements such as ."Management Development Program" or "Supervising Development program" in the training needs column.

 Let us look at the following dialogue before the "training needs assessment" and contrasts those with "needs assessment."  The scene is a set at Kiran: Bhawani’s office at Bhawani and Associates. She is a highly respected human performance improvement technologist who heads a company specializing in needs assessment. and training. quality improvement. Kiran: has just received a phone call from a potential client: .

this is Kiran: Bhawani. . we have experiencing some performance problems with our shop-floor staff. Personnel Director of Jassi Industries. We would like to hire you to do the assessment and then develope the required training package. Kiran:. This is Jasbeer Singh. Jasbeer: Hi.Kiran: Hello. I believe we need a training needs assessment.

and to make sure we get the results we want we best ask ourselves –if training is the solution. Kiran: I’m pleased that you have selected me to help. isn’t a training needs assessment when you come into an organization and find out what training we need? That is what we need –and assessment prior to us giving training. what’s the problem?  Jasbeer: You’re the consultant. .

 Kiran: Jasbeer. the term is internally inconsistent. a training needs assessment is an oxymoron. purposes. Would you mind if we go through some of the technical training jargon to ensure we are talking about the same tools. and consequences?  Jasbeer: Sounds good to me. .

the "what" that is to be delivered… as opposed to means. That is why I prefer not to use the term training needs assessment at all. Kiran: When you know training is the solution. . By results I am talking about ends. which are the processes or ways we go about achieving or delivering the ends…such as training. a training requirements analysis could be done based on the gaps in results (playoffs and performance) between presents and desired results. It usually makes people assume a training solution.

Are you with me so far? . but ends. means. this all sounds like the Total Quality Management (TQM) training we have had. Jasbeer: I understand. processes. It is one of the possible methods-means to achieve desired results. What does TQM have to do with needs assessment?  Kiran: TQM is a process.

may help?  Jasbeer: People aren’t happy with our current program of training for our initial employment personnel. what you first called a training needs assessment. opinions. or factors that make you think a training requirements analysis. Jasbeer: Sure. keep going. Is this what you mean by a gap? . that is.  Kiran: What are the data. The training program was developed by a panel of technical experts and it takes the people too long to complete the training. our new employees. Many of our new personnel leave the company before they finish the training program.

 Jasbeer: What are you talking about? . not as something we want to do. I use gaps to describe the difference between desired and current ends –the results of your organization’s training or other interventions compared to the desired results. but we are getting to it. I use "need" as a noun to describe the gap in results. Kiran: Not exactly.

. Give it a scan and they will talk again. Kiran: I’m talking about not prescribing training for all you organization’s problems. I am going to fax you an article that may help you understand the concepts and terms we have been discussing.

where.TERM Needs assessment DEFINITION The gap between current and desired (or required) results. to meet the need. A more appropriate term to use for training needs assessment is training requirements analysis. meet the need. A needs assessment and needs analysis help determine if training is the solution. An oxymoron." Needs assessment A process to identify the needs and place them in priority order on the basis of what it costs to ignore it as compared to the value it adds to society and the organization Needs analysis Training needs assessment A process to determine the reasons and causes for a need so that appropriate interventions may be identified and later selected. before determining what the need is. and how training might be best Training requirements analysis . A selection of the means –training. or part of the solution. or (stated another way) the gap in results between "what is" and "what should be. Once the "why training" is established. when. a training requirements analysis is conducted to determine the who.

 Let us look at the difference between "training needs assessment" and "needs assessment". but the name of the process could lead user to training despite her caveat. . Rossett clearly states that training may not be the solution. "needs assessment". consequently showing that the last term is an oxymoron –a contradictory juxtaposition of concepts that is too common and comfortable to the ears of human performance improvement personnel.  Rossett (1987) defines a "training needs assessment" as "a systematic study of a problem or innovation. The definition is a sound one for a needs assessment. The means by which this end will be achieved is to define the terms "training". in order to make effective decisions or recommendations about what should happen next". The confusion arises due to tying the concept of "training" to the definition of a needs assessment. "needs". incorporating data and opinions from varied sources. and "training needs assessment".

Whatever the means employed. for example: interactive and hypermedia-based. teleconferencing. knowledge. as an intervention to solve a performance problem. etc. appropriate interventions –such as training. 2) the identified needs are placed in priority order based on what it costs to ignore the need and compared to its impacts and society and the organization. computer based instruction. and abilities for the performance of mission and job-related tasks.and soft –personal and private. the latter process is the means to identify the causes and reasons. jobs aids. . embedded training. the desired end is the same: mastery and acquisition of the skills. 1996) a needs assessment is comprised of two procedural elements: 1) a "need" is a gap between current and desired results. knowledge. a father of HRD. and attitudes required for present job performance. attitudes. Training. "Needs assessment" and "needs analysis" are not synonymous terms.    As defined by Kaufman (1994. Nadler (1980). A needs assessment is a prerequisite procedure for need analysis. the job an individual currently holds. experiential and discovery meet the need are selected. defines training as the process of acquiring and improving the skills. a "needs assessment" is a process for identifying the gaps based on the differences between "what is" and "what should be" based on a combination of hard –independently verifiable. jobs redesign. hiring may take many forms.

and healthy potato chip. giant shrimp . personnel selection. such as ergonomics. or a myriad of other programs. Needs assessment is a process for determining the gaps in results. not and end. and tactics used to solve performance problems (Rosenberg. systems. a "training needs assessment" would be the process of determining the training requirements for bridging the gap between what is and what should be." In this fashion . Thus. feedback. "training needs assessment" is an oxymoron. This might close off any other performance solving interventions. compensation. Based on these definitions of terms. " training needs assessment’ can be moved out of the oxymoron league of item such as civil service. incentives. Training indicates a solution –a means. . so an affective and efficient solution may be selected. organizational re-design. Why go through the process of needs assessment if the decision as to a solution Training has already been made? A more accurate terms for "training needs assessment " is "training requirements analysis. It is likely a premature selection of training that is based on the fact that a performance gap is going to be solved via a pre-selected intervention – training. 1990). or ends. culture change.

However . ADDIE begins with analysis . A training process . Implement . How does the training department know what to analyze? By locating the needs assessment process within a training context. knowledge . A needs assessment located within a training context may be fundamentally flawed. design . attitudes . the assessment is slanted toward identifying performance gaps for training solution. and abilities through training solutions once the requirement for training is establish . now assessment. This yield a "Training requirements analysis" and a training intervention before we can really justify a training solution. The gap between " What is" and " what should be" in terms of result may be skewed toward a training solution. Development . such as the classic instructional system design ADDIE model (Analyze . and Evaluate) is a systematic method for improving skills . Valid useful needs assessment and needs analysis processes should be free from training’s "most favored solution status" .

Since a performance intervention will more often than not . The freedom from bias that distinguishes a useful needs assessment process is not inherent to a training requirements analysis or any needs analysis that resides in a context geared towards a particular intervention. required non training solutions . is likely wrong al least 80 % of the time. The needs assessment gaps in results are free from how the need will be met (such as training . time . Useful needs assessment and needs analyses should be free from training bias. technology) or the resources that will be used to meet the need (such as personnel . then . 1990) . equipment). .Edward Deming’s anecdotal modification of the Pareto principle that 80 % of all quality problems are not duet to lack of knowledge or skills (Clark 1994) and Spitzer’s observation that at least 80 % of the performance problems he has encountered in his career could not be solved by instruction of any kind (Spitzer. money . Experience has shown that a training intervention is only required in one out of five performance problems theirs figure is corroborated by W. computers . To slant a need assessment toward a training solution. it is risky to have a needs assessment within a training context.

training is an intervention with which most people are comfortable . and called a "training requirements analysis" or "training intervention selection’ that is conducted after training has been selected and justified . performance technology (PT) is a systematic approach aimed at solving human performance problems by linking the solution to business result that is it aims to achieve business and organizational result through tactics that improve and align organizational (19910. As a major step toward the termination of this destructive notion and general enlightenment to non-training interventions. it fits a known parading. The terms "training needs assessment’ and "training needs analysis " help perpetuate the fallacy that training is the best choice to resolve performance problem in all situations. and information technology. the term "training needs assessment’ might be stricken from the registers of acceptable terms. Rossett (1995) notes that the most common non training interventions are job aids technology. Furthermore . psychology . organizational development . and anthropology. Its approach is systematic: An ordered sequential data-driven process establishes relationship between steps.   According to Roosett . these people see performance problems as being solved by training and react to a performance problem with the familiar cry of "we need training!" thus training is prematurely selected as a solution even if it is not the most efficient or effective intervention. such as communications . The Varity of non-training interventions are unknown to the majority of people in the work place. PT also uses non-training intervention to solve problems drawn from many disciplines .

I want results. But let me clarify a few points. esoteric type of work that is motivated by utopian ideals. . So a valid and useful needs assessment doesn’t assume training is the solution?  Kiran : Yes and the desired result for our needs assessment are rolled down from the ideal Vision witch is the view an organization has of the world we want to leave for our grandchildren. should care about and commit to deliver results to achieve the ideal vision.  Jasbeer : let’s see if I understand an assessment starting with the societal outcomes or what you call an ideal Vision is the place to start a needs assessment . But I’m not interested in any academic .  Kiran : Sure . Organizations including Jassi industries . Jasbeer contacts Kiran an the telephone conversation resumes… Jasbeer . fire away!  Jasbeer .  After reading the fax . I’ve just read the article you sent to me and I’m beginning to see the light.

I can explain how all this relates back to your situation and future success. Kiran : I am all for results Jasbeer and if I can have some more of your time . The ideal vision is really a level above this servers as the starting point for our planning.  Jasbeer : Why do I care about the world and this ideal vision? . each division at Jassi industries developed a vision statement. as part of total quality management .  Jasbeer . This is getting interesting. You should be aware that it is becomes increasingly understood in management circles that the extent to which organizational purpose are identical to social purposes is the extent to which an organization is likely to be successful. which was combined to from a mission statement for company. keep going…  Kiran : Jasbeer .

Jasbeer . taxpayers . Commitment . Kiran : Jasbeer it is all right to be uncomfortable. customer . "Live" as do all its neighbors in our world. if you don’t care about their future. who will? Besides . I would also include many others such as spouses . how does this ideal Vision stuff work? Kiran : We bring together the key planning partners from inside and outside the organization. So tell me . empowerment! Enough . I do it caused me a considerable amount of discomfort! . I am getting really uncomfortable with this . the world is what we leave to our grandchildren. and other members of the public. remember then paradigms shifting from the Joel barker video in the TQM training? Jasbeer : Yes. hence the world . the wider the base the more commitment you’ll get to the ideal vision/ Jasbeer . Jasbeer : Ok . Kiran : look . Including our customers? Kiran : Yes they would be partners.they are        future . I care about my grandchildren and . the clients of Jassi industries.

Kiran : Peter Drucker . we start by assessing the needs at the societal level or what we call the Mega level." And start to proactively create the future unless. my name is not Nostradamus!. of course you can predict the future. The needs analysis follows and deals with identifying the reason or causes for the gaps that we chose to close in the needs assessment. If you make the shift. Jasbeer: No. you CEO’s favorite person to quote . says that if you can’t predict the future . Are you beginning to see the connection between society . then create it. I guarantee you will be safe from reactive " training needs assessment. Strategic planning plus is proactive and begins with the ideal vision to create the future consequently. keuth industries . Kiran: Right the difference in results between what is and what should or could be is the beginning of our needs assessment.      Kiran : You are on the verge of a personal paradigm shift. and the needs assessment? . Jasbeer The gaps are based on results right?. then method of identifying the needs and placing then in priority order based on the cost to ignore it.

Jasbeer : And the measurement help us f we achieved our an organization . Kiran . That is right. from the ideal vision . Macro is what? Kiran : Macro deals with organizational results . Ok .  Kiran . Jasbeer : Hold the phone . Our typical mission statement plus performance measurement criteria creates our mission objective. commit to do something about . Jasbeer : I think so. . the contribution Jassi industries makes for its external clients and society. We described the what could be in measurable terms. The mission objective deals with the direction for our organization’s outputs at the Macro level… and by looking at needs we can see if we are continuously improving toward the ideal vision. we pick out the pieces that we     .

but we could make certain our performance improvement there will contribute to organizational and societal result. but I need. Jasbeer: It’s sort of making sense. but tell me more. . macro equals organization . Do you now see that have three level of results societal organizational . Thanks for you help. Mega equals society . Jasbeer: This is beginning to make sense. What else? Kiran : Micro is the products of the systems of the organization. and building block results and we can do needs assessment at each of these levels? Of course.I mean. Processes are how we get the results and inputs are our raw materials. -OPPS. I should look into this issue in greater detail. don’t forget Kaufman’s book Strategic Thinking. I’ll contact you next week about tackling our performance problem. Kiran: Great. Kiran: When a needs assessment is only about results then we can define what it is we really want to accomplish without prescribing training before we know training is the appropriate solution.      Jasbeer : Ok . It will provide you with the details you are looking for and the fax has a simple table of terms to assist you understanding of assessment and analysis. your performance problems you called about are at the micro level.

. Though the most popular definition of a the solution. In conclusion. it is clearly shrouded in warnings that training may not be the solution. 2) not confuse "needs" with "want" and 3) differentiate between "ends" and "means". A "training needs assessment" is an oxymoron. We encourage human performance improvement professionals to: 1) steer clear of the term "training needs assessment". It is misleading to use "training" in the title if it is not part of the effective and efficient solution 80% of the time. We recommend the use of the terms "needs assessment". which should be followed by a "needs analysis".

.  logic.Need for formal training  Our education system has a greater focus on:  learning analytical skills. etc.  This is important for technical education which is more structured.

believes that soft skills training is no longer considered just a matter of self-development. Preneet Bindra Sinha. manager—people strategy. companies are finally beginning to understand its value in doing business. . Sapient.

‖ she adds. language and conduct following a two-day workshop justifies the time. effort and resource deployment in soft skills training. ―It is also very evident to us that the transformation that occurs in demeanour. vMoksha Technologies asserts that formal training is important for the skill set to be taken seriously.Mamata Nanda. head of corporate HR. .

in addition to various technology. It also has a competency based assessment programme. Mastek provides at least 12 days of just soft skills training for its staff members every year. Polaris. Sun Microsystems. For instance. Infinite have incorporated soft skills into their training agenda. vMoksha. . Sapient. functional and process related learning. Tavant. Organisations now insist on a mix of technical and soft skills training for its employees. CSC. Companies like Mastek.

while 75 percent is allocated for technical skills training. vMoksha has designed a customised Personal Effectiv-eness module that encompasses all necessary non-technical skills. Almost 25 percent of the mandatory training requirement for every employee is focussed on the soft skills area. .

At Infinite Computer Solutions. . All the employees in the organisation go thr-ough training according to their career progression. on the other hand. CSC. has a clearcut process of role-based training. Sun has specialised programmes for specific needs. At Sapient it is ensured that people who are involved in solution design at client site have taken soft skills training like facilitation training and time management. normally 30 percent of the total training to be imparted to an employee is focussed on developing his/her soft skills.

 Sun has specialised programmes for specific needs. on the other hand. All the employees in the organisation go thr-ough training according to their career progression. At Infinite Computer Solutions. CSC. normally 30 percent of the total training to be imparted to an employee is focussed on developing his/her soft skills. has a clearcut process of role-based training. At Sapient it is ensured that people who are involved in solution design at client site have taken soft skills training like facilitation training and time management. .

etc. Quality systems. performance appraisal and the managers recommendations  Skill Analysis Skill Gap Bridging: Training in related skills/Case tools Re-skilling requirements: For future enhancement of the employee knowledge and the needs of the markets Performance Appraisal Skill Up-gradation: Advanced training in a particular skill or training on advanced versions of a product/application Skill Broadening: Multi-Skilling Manager's Recommendation Behavioral & Personal Development Training Role Based: Project Management.Training Need Analysis  The Training needs are analyzed depending on the skill required. .

and linked to the business strategy and vision of an organization. It has gained momentum since then. training was a ritual or fancy in medium and large organizations. Historically.  Over the years. most organizations have started laying a strong emphasis on training and development. preparing working groups to adapt to the fast changing demands in a competitive business environment. Training programmers must be pro-active. Development of human resource through training was not that seriously visualized until the 80s and the 90s. .

Familiarization Program for the New joinees (Experienced level people) with a dedicated team of professionals on a monthly basis. Technical Training Programs for the Software professionals based on the Project requirement.Training Practices        Identifying the Training needs by focusing on future efficiencies and the business requirement. Mandatory Quality Training for all the employees. . Quizzes Creation of a Skill database.   Post Training Development Plan (PTDP) includes Comprehensive evaluation thorough refresher courses. Comprehensive Induction Program for the New Joinees (Freshers) Management Development Program for middle management without a formal management degree. Orientation Program for Employees heading for an overseas assignment.

etc.Training Need Analysis  The Training needs are analyzed depending on the skill          required. . Quality systems. performance appraisal and the managers recommendations Skill Analysis Skill Gap Bridging: Training in related skills/Case tools Re-skilling requirements: For future enhancement of the employee knowledge and the needs of the markets Performance Appraisal Skill Up-gradation: Advanced training in a particular skill or training on advanced versions of a product/application Skill Broadening: Multi-Skilling Manager's Recommendation Behavioral & Personal Development Training Role Based: Project Management.


OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING  Orientation training  Training to cope with present and future organizational needs  Training for better on-the-job performance.  Training to build up an inventory as a second line  Training to learn critical / exceptional skills etc. .

treated as ritual Training needs assessed on ad-hoc basis Trainer as coordinator         Desired Pattern Training need-based Pedagogy as training methodology Thrust on multi-skill Attitude and behavioural reorientation Planned investment for future Continuous and scientific evaluation Data-based approach od need assessment Trainer as change agent .TRAINING METHODOLOGY Existing Pattern Training on ad-hoc basis Androgogy as training methodology Focus on Knowledge and skill Focus on technical skill Cost-centered approach Simple evaluation.