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Health Informatics

Imagination is more important than knowledge" – Albert Einstein

Enrico’s view
If physiology literally means 'the logic of life', and pathology is 'the logic of disease', then medical informatics is the logic of healthcare. It is the rational study of the way we think about patients, and the way that treatments are defined, selected and evolved. It is the study of how medical knowledge is created, shaped, shared and applied Enrico Coiera 1997

Health Informatics Health Informatics is having a mid-life crisis. it is a 45 year old profession wandering around the desert to find itself Yuval Shahar (2001) IMIA Invited Satellite Working Conference ‘Challenges in Medical Informatics – successes and failures’ . Madrid March 2001 .

Definitions • Informatics • Medical Informatics • Nursing Informatics • Clinical Informatics • Health Informatics .1.

Informatics • the application of information technologies to optimize the information management function within an organization .

Informatics • information management • information technology .

at the right time and place. and for the right price .Information management • assuring that the right information is available to the right people. within and without an organization.

includes: – computers. paper. voice. – pen. etc. multi-media storage. data and image sensing and communications devices. telephones and fax machines . graphics devices.Information technology • any technology which processes and communicates data.

reflecting a widespread concern to define an information agenda for health services which recognises the role of citizens as agents in their own care. BMIS (2002) . 'Health informatics' is now tending to replace the previously commoner term 'medical informatics'. skills and tools that enable the sharing and use of information to deliver healthcare and promote health.Health or Medical Informatics The terms 'medical informatics' and 'health informatics' have been variously defined. as well as the major information-handling roles of the non-medical healthcare professions. but can be best understood as the understanding.

1973 . Recihertz P Protokoll der Klausurtagung Ausbildungsziele. steering. control and synthesis of information processes within the health care delivery system. Inhalte und Methoden in der Medizinischen Informatik Ulm: Reisenberg/b. especially in the classical environment and medical practice". documentation.Medical Informatics "the science of analysis.

p. Graves JR. Cocoran S The Study of Nursing Informatics Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship Vol. 227. 21.Nursing Informatics "A combination of computer science. 1989 . information science and nursing science designed to assist in the management and processing of nursing data and the delivery of nursing care".

its information and information management with information processing and communications technology to support world health". IMIA Nursing Informatics 6th International Congress Stockholm.Nursing Informatics "Integration of nursing. October 1997 .

Protti DJ A New Undergraduate Program in Health/Medical Informatics AMIA Proceedings Masson Publishing. 1982 .Health Informatics "The study of nature and principles of information and its applications within all aspects of health care delivery and promotion".

and policy aspects of information technology are not usually taken into consideration .Health Informatics • Health informatics is seen as to be concerned with the individual and group behaviour of health care personnel in their interaction with information and information technologies. • Medical informatics is seen to be rooted in medicine and computer science – the social. organizational.

The domain covers computational and informational aspects of processes and structures.International view Health informatics is concerned with the systematic processing of data. Health informatics is delivered by operational health practitioners. commercial and academic domains Jean Roberts – Medinfo2001 . information and knowledge in medicine and healthcare. academic researchers and educators. applicable to any clinical or managerial discipline within the health sector whether on a tele (remote) basis or not. scientists and technologists in operational.

Bodies of knowledge • hard sciences – biology and clinical chemistry – computer science – engineering – mathematics and physics • soft sciences – economics – information science – management science – psychology – sociology • medicine and other health care professions .

Areas of instruction and learning A. Management 2. Management . Healthcare Organizations 1. Information 1. Technology B. Clinical (Delivery) 2.

national. nomenclature Data analysis & statistical methods Systems analysis and design Information sources (local.Information . Information 1.A. Management – – – – – – – Data . classification. international) – Managing information resources .Wisdom Spectrum Power and value of information Data modeling and data standards Coding.

databases.A. • application Communications technologies – Local Area Networks – Intranets and the Internet – Telematicss/telemedicine Infusion/diffusion theories Effectiveness metrics Security and Confidentiality • • • . Information 2. Technology • Hardware processing and storage technologies • Computer languages • Software: operating systems.

Healthcare Organizations 1.B. Clinical (Delivery) • • • • • • • • History and culture of clinicians Clinical practice content and process Clinical practice guidelines and protocols Evidence-based decision making Decision support and expert systems Health outcomes and health status Epidemiology Population health .

B. Healthcare Organizations 2. Management • • • • • • • • organization theory and models communications theories management process and practice organizational development and change management health economics and fiscal management resource allocation models individual and group decision support systems ethics and legislation .

Clinical Work Information and Communication technologies Organisation of medicine and health care (system) Three Domains Needing an “Effective Fit” .

Context: Health Care System Organising and managing Clinical practice Learning from sets of patients Diagnosing and treating a patient The three levels of clinical activity which should be the focus of information technology in a health care system .

recognise the clinical imperative need to treat more patients at least as well in less time using new systems. choose robust. take into account research and evaluation of informational developments such as terming and classification systems. relate the technologies to the imperatives. extendable and proven technologies which. recognise wider imperatives and set ill-conceived targets. do not inhibit future developments. . for example.Failure to:• understand the nature of different clinical practices and its • • • • • • consequence for the use of technology. understand the nature of the relationship between clinical staff and management which might predispose clinical staff to oppose introduction of a clinical information system. transferable.

implement in an orderly and timely way. actually check whether the technologies are meeting expectations and requirements. involve the future users in such a way that their input is meaningful to determine system requirements and to gain their subsequent ownership prepare and develop individuals and the organisation to make effective use of information technologies.Failure to:• create an affordable and practical technology financial • • plan from a high level strategy. whether the system is highly valued and to react accordingly • • .

prepares for these technologies and other changes R ealise 6. problems. Knows of appropriate technological developm ents & relates them to inform ation requirem ents: knows of opportunities and imperatives for change T ell 7. Assesses and understands what [and for what key reasons] activities occur at each level 3. informs persuades. Obs erve & enquire T ell Obs erve & enquire Work System T ell R elate & check R elate & Chec k Evaluates. Creates an information and technology strategy and financial plan 5. Involves. Plans and introduces new technologies with other changes . imperatives and requirements for change Assesses and understands the context & identifies consequences for clinical work and imperatives for change R espond R espond Identify impact Identify impac t Health care Clinical Organisation of clinic al work Sets ofpatients Single patient Obs erve & enquire T ell 1. Selects and prioritises opportunities.2. reviews and assesses the impact and values it T ell R espond & Implement 4.

knows of opportunities and imperatives for change . imperatives and requirements for change • Knows of appropriate technological developments and relates them to information requirements.Stages of the model 1 to 4 • Assesses and understands what and for what reasons things happen • Assesses and understands the context and identifies consequences for clinical work and imperatives for change • Selects and prioritises opportunities. problems.

prepares for these technologies and other changes Plans and introduces new technologies and other changes Evaluates. reviews and assesses the impact and values it • .Stages of the model 5 to 8 • Creates an information and technology and • • strategy plan Involves. informs. persuades.

• involve perceived beneficiaries.‘hybrid’ managers-informaticians • select the appropriate information and communication technologies. • successfully plan. implement and evaluate the impact of change . • identify the prospective benefits.