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ions are again accelerated due to electric field and are then passed through magnetic field. 1/ 2mv^2  eV v  2eV / m . • Potential diff.• Heated tungsten filament produces an electron beam.pulls out ions from the sample.

optical designs. So the magnetic sector follows an arc. • Magnetic sector. .The radius and angle vary with diff. hence acceleration is perpendicular to direction of motion and so object moves in a circular path. diverted into circular orbits.• Ioins then enter a magnetic field of constant intensity h.

mv^2 / r  hev r  mv / eh r  2V / h^ 2 * m / e .

.• Radius of orbit a func.m/e will strike the tube at some point and would get grounded. • By varying V.of mass to charge ratio.we can make any ion to coincide with the arc of the analyser tube in the magnetic field. • Ions of diff.


Charging of the molecules can be achieved by bombarding them with electrons emitted from a filament. all starting with the same kinetic energy. require to fly a known distance. • As the sample molecules are moved about in the vacuum.• Time-of-flight mass spectrometers identify molecules by measuring the time that sample molecules. using electrical fields. an electrical field accelerates them all to the same energy. The velocity a molecule gains is then: • . • Once the sample molecules are ionised. it is necessary to ionise or put charge on them.

and their start velocity is dependent upon their mass. As they all travel the same distance through the drift region. .• All the accelerated ions then enter a field free "drift" or time measurement region. measuring the flight time each ion takes to fly through the drift region is just proportional to the square root of their mass.

• The time measurement is done by the timing electronics. .• From above equation the mass corresponding to each measured flight time can be calculated. pulsed ionization method is used as a gate to release ions from the ion source. • To well define the starting time. which applies a pulse of voltage to accelerate the ions and measures the time between this pulse. and the electrical pulses as the ions impact a detector located at the end of the ion flight path.

) Poor resolution due to oscilloscope used.) Accuracy depends upon electronic circuits rather than mechanical alignment. . • 2. • Disadv:1.) Speed and its ability to record entire mass spectrum at one time.• Adv: 1.

Quadrupole MS .

A direct current voltage is then superimposed on the RF voltage. This permits selection of an ion with a particular m/z or allows the operator to scan for a range of m/z-values by continuously varying the applied voltage. set parallel to each other. based on their massto-charge ratio (m/z). Ions are separated in a quadrupole based on the stability of their trajectories in the oscillating electric fields that are applied to the rods. Only ions of a certain mass-to-charge ratio m/z will reach the detector for a given ratio of voltages: other ions have unstable trajectories and will collide with the rods.[1] Mathematically this can be modeled with the help of the Hill differential equation.[3] . Ions travel down the quadrupole between the rods.[1] • In a quadrupole mass spectrometer the quadrupole is the component of the instrument responsible for filtering sample ions. and a radio frequency (RF) voltage is applied between one pair of rods and the other.• It consists of 4 circular rods.[1] • Each opposing rod pair is connected together electrically.

Applications • Isotope ratio MS: isotope dating and tracking -Mass spectrometry is also used to determine the isotopic composition of elements within a sample • Trace gas analysis • Atom probe • Pharmacokinetics • Respired gas monitor • Space exploration .