4/11/12

Design For Manufacturing and Assembly

DFMA is a proactive and concurrent manufacturing aspects

design

process that allows for early consideration of

• The purpose is to generate an environment where a cross-functional team works together to optimize the manufacturing design for cost effective

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benefits
 Tangible 

Shortened Development Time Development Costs a smooth transition to production

 Reduced

 Enhances  Reduced

parts count assembly processes Quality

 Simplified  Improved  Reduced  Intangible  Improved

manufacturing costs

team

communication within entire design

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DFMA Principles
 Minimize

the number of parts

 Standardize  Avoid  Use  Use

difficult components

modular subassemblies multifunctional parts reorientation self-locating features special tooling/test equipment accessibility operations & process steps

 Minimize  Use

 Avoid

 Provide

 Minimize

4/11/12 Introduction § What is DFM? § DFM is product design considering manufacturing requirements § DFM is the first step in which a team approach is taken to develop the product § DFM is an umbrella which covers a variety of tools and techniques to accomplish a manufacturable product § Why DFM? § Lower development cost § Shorter development time § Faster manufacturing start of build § Lower assembly and test costs .

Introduction § How do all the pieces fit together? § The objective of DFM is to identify product concepts that are easy to manufacture § Focus on component design for ease of manufacture and assembly § Integrate manufacturing to ensure the best match of needs and requirements. § DFM in industry is typically divided into 2 main activities: vA team which will be responsible for the product 4/11/12 .

. This design practice not only focuses on the design aspect of a part but also on the producibility. The basic idea exists in almost all engineering disciplines.4/11/12 Introduction (DFM) is the general engineering art of designing products in such a way that they are easy to manufacture. part or assembly. In simple language it means relative ease to manufacture a product. but of course the details differ widely depending on the manufacturing technology.

regulatory time to market. safety. new doesn’t product compromise functionality. . and customer satisfaction.4/11/12 DESIGN for manufacturability (DFM) is the process of proactively designing products to: a) optimize all the manufacturing functions: fabrication. and repair. quality. b) assure the best compliance. cost. and c) ensure that lack of manufacturability styling. reliability. shipping. service. assembly test. procurement.

DFM Method 4/11/12 .

the costs of components. the impact of DFM decisions on other  Consider factors. .4/11/12 DFM Method  Estimate  Reduce  Reduce  Reduce the manufacturing costs. the costs of supporting production. the costs of assembly.

Estimate the Manufacturing Costs 4/11/12 .

purchased components.e. energy.) and for disposal of the wastes produced by the system .4/11/12 Manufacturing Costs Defined  Sum of all the expenditures for the inputs of the system (i. etc. raw materials.

4/11/12 Elements of the Manufacturing Cost of a Product .

thereby reducing assembly costs. orient and insert them.4/11/12 DFA Systems Design for assembly (DFA) is a process by which products are designed with ease of assembly in mind. if the parts are provided with features which make it easier to grasp. In addition. If a product contains fewer parts it will take less time to assemble. The reduction of the number of parts in an assembly has the added benefit of . this will also reduce assembly time and assembly costs. move.

focusing on functionality and on assimilability concurrently. We may define DFA as "a process for improving product design for easy and low-cost assembly. DFA recognizes the need to analyze both the part design and the whole product for any assembly problems early in the design process.4/11/12 Introduction The aim of design for assembly (DFA) is to simplify the product so that the cost of assembly is reduced." .

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Individual workbench components either are transferred or by to the manually employing mechanical equipment such as parts feeds or transfer . general purpose tools like screwdrivers and pliers. the operations are carried out manually with or without the aid of simple.4/11/12 TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSEMBLY METHODS Manual Assembly In manual assembly.

Common forms of Robotic Assembly: .4/11/12 TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSEMBLY METHODS Automatic Assembly Using Robots / Robotic Assembly: Production volume is higher than that of a manual assembly system but lower than that of an automatic assembly system (Fixed automation).

Comparison of Assembly Methods Manual assembly requires the least capital investment followed by the two simplest forms of robotic assembly. 4/11/12 .

4/11/12 TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ASSEMBLY METHODS Automatic Assembly Using Robots / Robotic Assembly: Production volume is higher than that of a manual assembly system but lower than that of an automatic assembly system (Fixed automation). Common forms of Robotic Assembly: .

avoid or minimise part orientation during assembly (i.4/11/12 Design Guidelines for Manual Assembly the following guidelines depend on the skill of the worker:  eliminate the need for workers to make decisions or adjustments. prefer self-locating parts).use "standard" parts.e. prefer symmetrical parts).  prefer easily handled parts that do not confuse within one .   minimise the number of different parts .   ensure accessibility and visibility.e. eliminate the need for assembly tools and gauges (i.

avoid parts that require orientation. etc. vibration. avoid tangling or nesting parts. etc. .Design Guidelines for Automation The main different here is that assembly is performed by machines instead of by humans.)?        use self-aligning and self-locating features avoid screws/bolts use standard components and materials. avoid flexible and fragile parts.)? must the part be separate to allow assembly (cover plates.  4/11/12 reduce the number of different components by considering   does the part move relative to other parts? must the part be isolated from other parts (electrical.

the part so that it can be fed in the proper orientation.Design Guidelines for Robotic Assembly  design 4/11/12 the part so that it is compatible with the robot's end effector.  design .

not in confined spaces. never bury important components  Make parts such that it is easy to identify how they should be oriented for insertion     Prefer self-locating parts Standardise to reduce part variety Maximise part symmetry Design in geometric or weight polar properties if nonsymmetric .Basic DFA Guidelines  4/11/12 Minimise part count by incorporating multiple functions into single parts   Modularize multiple parts into single subassemblies Assemble in open space.

Basic DFA Guidelines          4/11/12 Prevent nesting of parts. eliminate channels if possible  Provide flats for uniform fastening and fastening ease . prefer stacked assemblies Provide orienting features on nonsymmetries Design the mating features for easy insertion Provide alignment features Insert new parts into an assembly from above Eliminate re-orientation of both parts and assemblies Eliminate fasteners Place fasteners away from obstructions. design in fastener access Deep channels should be sufficiently wide to provide access to fastening tools.

4/11/12 Mass Customization Click to edit Master subtitle style .

Mass customization is a cost-efficient way of offering  some of the benefits of customization.4/11/12 Introduction  Mass production of goods with the differing use of individual specifications through number of different components that may be assembled in a  configurations. .

4/11/12 Mass Customization  We define mass customization as providing products and services which meet the needs of each individual customer with regard to certain product features with near mass production efficiency. .

book  attributed Davis “Future Perfect”  where he writes about “mass customization.4/11/12 Mass Customization Mass Customization to Stan is an academic in his term. the production and distribution of customized goods and services on a mass basis.” .

some services  2. clothing and footwear. furniture.Types of Mass Customization (1)  4/11/12 The Four Faces of Mass Customization –  1. Collaborative Customization:  Consumer and producer engage in a conversation to determine customer requirements  Computers.  Adaptive Customization: Product is designed so that users can alter it themselves to fit unique requirements on different occasions .

 4/11/12 Cosmetic Customization: Product is unique in appearance only Customer’s chosen text or image on T-shirts. mugs etc. baseball caps. mouse mats.   Also called ‘Personalization’  4.  Transparent Customization: Producer provides customized product without consumer being necessarily being aware that it has been customized  Can be used when consumer’s needs are .Types of Mass Customization (2)  3.

4/11/12 True Mass Customization  True Mass Customization requires:  System for customer to specify requirements easily e.g. online ordering. call center manufacturing systems Enable economies of scope (keep cost and price low)  Advanced   Build-to-order  approach product is not made until order is received  Minimum 31 October 2005 order quantity of one Copyright MadeForOne.com 2005 .

less backlog of inventory Prices do not have to be cut as much Therefore. less likelihood of recession .) does not have finished product inventory  better use of working capital for company to differentiate product out economic fluctuations  Company  Easier  Levels    When slowdown occurs.4/11/12 Advantages of MC  Customer  Does has control over product not have to pay for features he/she does not want (computers etc.

Data gathered from loyalty schemes.  E.g.   Customized products with minimum quantities . etc. ‘Personalize your cellphone with any of our 2000 skins’  Advanced ordering system linked to craft production.4/11/12 What Mass Customization Isn’t  Massive Product Variety – Customer has Choice but not Control.  Example: Well known snowboard maker – customer can specify exact requirements online but boards are hand-made  Personalization or mass customization of Marketing:  Use of knowledge about customer to personalize marketing of standard products.

Fast Company. Nov.   Why?  ‘Living .4/11/12 Examples of Mass Customization  Dell  Build to order computers not manufacture (modular components) MC sometimes associated with higher prices but Dell cheaper than most Massive efficiency of supply chain management 2004 in Dell Time’ .  Assembly.

Vans  Bivolino (shirts). . construction – insulated roof and wall panels. Target. Tommy Hilfiger and footwear very suited to MC due to each person being unique in size and shape  Clothing  Sports Equipment (treadmills)  Nautilus  Industrial  Kingspan equipment. Otabo Shoes. Land’s End.4/11/12 Examples of Mass Customization  Clothing  NikeID. and Footwear MiAdidas. U-Jeans.

4/11/12 Product-Process Matrix PRODUCT STRUCTURE VERY LOW VOLUMES VERY HIGH VOLUMES LOW VOLUMES Many Products HIGH VOLUMES Few Products PROCESS STRUCTURE JUMBLED FLOW (Job Shop) LOW STANDARDIZATION One-of-a-kind Products HIGH STANDARDIZATION Commodity Products DISCONNECTED LINE FLOW (Batch Flow) CONNECTED LINE FLOW (Machine or Worker paced) CONTINUOUS FLOW 36 36 .

Usually. a company follows one of two paths: the red path (over & down) OR the green path below (down & over).4/11/12 Product-Process Matrix Movement along the Diagonal Rarely does a company move directly from one cell on the diagonal to another. due to a internal decision or a external factor. P O U TS R C U E R D C T U T R V R H HV L M S E Y IG O U E L WV LU E O O M S M ny P uc a rod ts H HV L M S IG O U E F P ew rodu cts H HS N A D A N IG TA D R IZ TIO C m ity P ucts om od rod V R LO V LU E E Y W O M S P O E S R C S SR CU E T U T R JU B E F W M L D LO (J S p ob ho ) L WS N A D A N O TA D R IZ TIO O -o -kind P uc ne f-a rod ts D C N E T DLIN F O IS O N C E E L W (B atch F w lo ) C N E TE L E F O O N C D IN L W (M in o W rker p ed ach e r o ac ) C N U U FO O TIN O S L W 37 37 .

and results in Opportunity Costs”? Which path – red or green – can be described as “risky. puts pressure on Marketing/Sales.4/11/12 Product-Process Matrix Movement along the Diagonal (continued) Which path – red or green – can be described as “Conservative. puts pressure on Manufacturing. and results in out-of-pocket costs”? P O U TS R C U E R D C T U T R V R LO V LU E E Y W O M S V R H HV L M S E Y IG O U E L WV LU E O O M S M ny P uc a rod ts H HV L M S IG O U E F P ew rodu cts H HS N A D A N IG TA D R IZ TIO C m ity P ucts om od rod P O E S R C S SR CU E T U T R JU B E F W M L D LO (J S p ob ho ) L WS N A D A N O TA D R IZ TIO O -o -kind P uc ne f-a rod ts D C N E T DLIN F O IS O N C E E L W (B atch F w lo ) C N E TE L E F O O N C D IN L W (M in o W rker p ed ach e r o ac ) C N U U FO O TIN O S L W 38 38 .

THE CONSUMER Low The Service Factory Low DEGREE OF LABOR INTENSITY High High The Service Shop Mass Service Professional Service 39 39 .4/11/12 Service Process Matrix DEGREE OF CONTACT WITH. AND CUSTOMIZATION FOR.

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