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1) 2) 3) 4)

Major blackout around the globe Voltage Instability/collapse Facts devices Modal analysis a) Matrix Equations 5) Case study a) IEEE 14 Bus Power System b) Flowchart 6) Proposed method of prevention 7) Comparison with earlier installation


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

Major blackouts around the globe
1. September, 2006, a severe disturbance occurred on the National Grid System of Pakistan which caused cascading outages of transmission lines and generating stations that ultimately led to system wide collapse/blackout. 2. 2006, a three phase fault and tripping of the Hassayampa- North Gila 500

kV line under off peak conditions
3. August 2003, blackout in North -Eastern U.S.A and Canada… 4. March 1993, when a blackout took place in the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil… 5. The 1987 Tokyo blackout… 6. The 1977 New York Blackout… One reason reactive power problem
3 Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

Voltage Stability
The voltage stability of a power system refers to its ability to properly maintain steady, acceptable voltage levels at all buses in the network at all times, even after being subjected to a disturbance. Instability is caused due to insufficient supply of increased demand in reactive power Voltage collapse can be initiated due to small changes of system conditions as well as large disturbances


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

FACTS Devices 1) The term FACTS refers to alternating current transmission systems incorporating power electronic-based and other static controllers to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability 2) Used in parallel with electro-mechanical devices 3) Effective response in operation, frequent variation in output and smoothly adjustable output 4) Various functions are : a) Voltage control c) Transient Stability e) Active and Reactive Power Flow Control 5) Commonly used FACTS devices are: SVC BESS STATCOM TCSC SMES SSSC b) Short Circuit Current Limiting

d) Dynamic Stability



Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

Modal analysis Most effective static method which involves computation of critical eigenvalue of the reduced power system steady state Jacobian matrix and the associated participation factors Shows how close the current operating point of power system is to the voltage collapse point At each operating point P was kept constant and evaluate voltage stability by considering the incremental relationship between Q and V The linearized steady state system power voltage equations are given by.

To reduce (1), let ∆P =0,


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

v = h∆V = the vector of modal voltage variations q= h∆Q = vector of modal reactive power variations
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for the ith mode
Relative participation of kth bus to ith mode is expressed by bus participation factor as

where ξki and hik are kth element of the right and left eigenvectors corresponding to ith eigenvalue of JR In the proposed method, for each contingency a probabilistic index is defined which evaluates the relative participation of each bus in voltage instability caused by all of the critical eigenvalues corresponding to that contingency


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

PCMi = contribution of bus i to voltage instability caused by critical modes under kth contingency state Poutage = likelihood of kth contingency occurring corresponding to outage of line k m = number of critical eigenvalues in kth contingency Pij = participation factor of bus i to critical eigenvalue j σj = critical eigenvalue j the total participation in all critical modes (TPCM) for each bus

the larger the magnitude of bus participation factor in critical modes, that bus is more effective in voltage instability. the smaller the magnitude of positive σj, that mode is more critical


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

Case study  IEEE 14 Bus Power System


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

Flowchart of the proposed method


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

Proposed method of prevention of voltage collapse

Assumption taken: 1. σcritical=1 2. The smallest eigen value of the reduced Jacobian matrix is determined as σmin= 2.7 3. The failure probability of all lines is assumed to be 0.02 4. The load and generation of the system is scaled by the factor of 0.95

Choose bus with largest value of TPCM and minimum value of σ


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

Table 2- The smallest eigen value associated with contingency after installation of STATCOM at Bus 12 Table 1- smallest eigen values for the three different contingencies


Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

Table 3- TPCM values of buses

Table 5- The smallest eigen value associated with contingency after installation of STATCOM at Bus 7

Table 4- TPCM values of buses
15 Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

Comparison of proposed method from earlier installation In earlier proposed methods, the optimal allocations are 0.19pu at bus 10 0.25pu at bus 13 0.25pu at bus 14 for the outage of line 1.

On the other hand  are The optimal FACTS devices allocations obtained by the proposed method 0.2pu at bus 7 0.11pu at bus 12.  The number of STATCOMs to be installed is decreased as well as their reactive power capacity.  The reason- the allocated FACTS devices proposed earlier are applied only in one area of the network which causes a non-uniform reactive power supply in the network.


 The method proposed here allocates FACTS devices in two separated areas of the network. Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE  Consequently, it will be effective in more contingency conditions correspond




Gaurav Agarwal, VIII Sem. EE

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