A presentation to spread awareness about caring the nature by improving our IT deeds!

An effort by “Abhijeet Chatterji” IT-08002

 Integrated

Circuits  Power Consumption  Green Computing  Understanding the levels of a Computer  Where does the power go?  How can we reduce power?


The first integrated circuit was invented in 1959. computer.    Equipment once used by the military are now available on a number of consumer products. communications. and consumer needs. 3 . Market driven by military. The first transistor was built in 1947.

Climate Control Dashboard Display Lighting Door Modules Engine Control Fuel Injection Entertainment Chassis Electronics Safety Control 4 .

predicted to be increasing by 10% each year from 2004-2009 (Instate Inc. Six billion microcontroller units were shipped in 2004.4 billion.  5 . market research) Semiconductor annual revenue of 2004 is estimated at US $211.

 Desktop consumption has reached 100 watts Total Personal Computer(400 million) energy usage in 2000 = 26 nuclear power plants Power is the bottleneck of improving the system performance Power consumption is causing serious problems because of excessive heat. Water Cooled Computer    6 .

1000 Power Density (W/cm2) 100 Nuclear Reactor Pentium 4 Hot Plate Pentium 3 Pentium 2 Pentium Pro Pentium 10 1 1980 386 486 2000 2010 1990 7 .

 As circuit speed increases. power consumption grows Designing low power circuits has been the most important issue Mobile applications demand long battery life    Low power consumption is listed as the second greatest challenge for the industry 8 .

supply. geo-political. and handling challenges for data centers 9 . and societal issue of our time Global Warming is influencing policies and laws which require energy usage and greenhouse emissions to be measured and controlled   The cost of energy and increases in IT power requirements present significant expense. Energy provisioning is arguably the most important business.

 Where are the web pages you browse?   Data Center One single room in Datacenter contains 100 Racks 1 Rack = 5 to 20 kW Contributed to the 2000/2001 California Energy Crisis Internet Client   Gateway Racks Data Center 10 .

 200 M tons of CO2= CO2 produced by 40 million cars 11 .

Sun -> underground)  Siberia umw.Flickr.edu  Underground Japan 12 .com  Current coolants: CFCs and HCFCs = Ozone Depletion The other alternative coolant: HFC = increase in green house emission 1300 times Moving Datacenters to exotic locations(Microsoft -> Cold Siberia.

13 .

westportnow. 2006: $15 Billion for energy http://www.5 billion in savings  200 x 10% = 20 million tons of CO2  4 million cars (Number of cars that would have to be taken off the road to reduce the same amount of CO2 emissions.com usage • Impact of 10% Reduction of Power Consumption of Data Centers  $15b x 10% = $1.) 14 .

 Data centers = huge energy bill + produce CO2 + green house emission + air pollution… Moore’s Law: transistor density doubles every 18 months. Computing is part of the solution. “We must reduce power usage. part of the problem”   15 .

Green Computing: • Maximize energy efficiency • Reduce of the use of hazardous materials such as   lead • Maximize recyclability of both a defunct product and of any factory waste.design low power consumption integrated circuits at 180nm and below. we need to rethink from a “Green Computing” perspective. In order to achieve sustainable computing. 16 . “Green Computing” in view of energy efficiency at the nanometer scale .

 A super low-power “processor”: • 800x faster • 1000x more memory • 3000x less power 17 .

000 other neurons.) Speed Memory 2.) Human Brain ( containing 100 billion neurons.000 GB Power 45 mW/cm3 15 mW/cm3 18 . researchers (The MOS transistor was built from Silicon.Modern Processor made by hundreds of PH. the pre-dominant atom in rock and sand. after processed in a high temperature.0 GHz 100 GB Equivalent to 1. each linked to as many as 10.D.700 GHz processor 100.

 Understand all levels of the computer  Understand where power is dissipated  Think about ways to reduce power usage at all levels 19 .

5 4 High Level Programming Assembly Language Operating System Instruction Set Architecture Software 3 2 1 0 Digital Logic Integrated Circuit Hardware 20 .

01.” Apr. hardware designers must understand the far-reaching effects their design decisions have on software applications. 2008 21 . Similarly.“The performance of software systems is dramatically affected by how well software designers understand the basic hardware technologies at work in a system.

Power Breakdown of an Itanium 2 Processor 22 .

  .Rising edge is used while falling clock edge(dot line) is not used for data information processing 23 . Clock frequency: how often the clock changes every second. every change of the clock consumes power. of course. and the other edge is ignored. Analogous to how many times the motor spins per second in your car.  Power consumption is proportional to clock frequency.Figure shows the Clock signal . Traditionally only one edge of the clock is used to process information.

Thank You 24 .

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