and Traditions Among the Members of an Organization or Society and Determines: Overall Priorities A Consumer Attaches to Different Activities and Products Success or Failure of Specific Products and Services . Rituals.Understanding Culture Culture is the Accumulation of Shared Meanings. Norms.

Aspects of Culture A Cultural System Consists of 3 Functional Areas: Social Structure Way in Which Orderly Social Life is Maintained Ecology Way a System is Adapted to Its Habitat Ideology Way in Which People Relate to Their Environment and Social Groups .

The invisible hands of culture • The impact of culture is so natural and automatic that its influence on behavior is usually taken for granted. • Each individual perceives the world through his or her own cultural lens . • Often. it is only when we are exposed to people with different cultural values or customs that we become aware of how culture has molded our own behavior.

Culture satisfies needs • Culture exists to satisfy needs of the people within society. It offers order. and guidance in all phases of human problem . direction. . • Culture beliefs values and customs continue to be followed as long as they satisfaction.

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• Culture is often viewed as group customs. or practice must be shared by a significant portion of the society. • Various social institutions transmit the elements of culture and make sharing of culture a reality. . a particular belief. value.Culture is shared • To be considered a cultural characteristic.

Levels of culture • Supranational : more than one country • National :specifically define particular country • Group : culture division or grouping .

Culture is dynamic • Culture continually evolves. the marketer must carefully monitor the sociocultural environment in order to market an existing product more effectively or to develop promising new products. therefore. . – This is not easy because many factors are likely to produce cultural changes within a given society.

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. Furthermore.Achievement And Success These values have historical roots in the traditional Protestant work ethic. which considers work to be spiritually healthy. research Individuals who consider a sense of accomplishment to be an important personal value tend to be achievers who strive hard for success.

Activity •Americans feel is it important to be active or involved.This can have both a positive and negative effect on products •. •Keeping busy is widely accepted as a healthy and even necessary part of the American lifestyle. . 1.

• In terms of practicality. Americans admire anything that saves time and effort. • Americans also attach great importance to time and punctuality. Americans are generally receptive to any new product that makes tasks easier and can help solve problems. • Americans seem to be convinced that ―time waits for no one. .Efficiency and Practicality • In terms of efficiency.‖ which is reflected in their habitual attention to being prompt.

or unsatisfied needs .Progress •Progress is linked to the values reviewed earlier and the central belief that people can always improve themselves—that tomorrow will be better than today. Progress often means the acceptance of change—new products designed to fulfill previously under.

• This preference is reflected in the large number of competitive brands and product variations that can be found on the shelves of the modern supermarket or department store.Freedom • To the marketer. • External Conformity • External conformity is a necessary process by which the individual adapts to society. . • Conformity takes the form of standardized goods and services. freedom of choice means the opportunity to choose from a wide range of alternatives.

satisfaction with the amount of material goods comes in terms of how they compare to others . material comfort signifies the attainment of the good life.Material Comfort • To most Americans. • It is a relative view.

selfesteem. and self-fulfillment are all expressions of individualism. •Self-reliance. self-confidence.Individualism •Americans want to be themselves. it is better to rely on oneself than on others. self-interest. that is. •Striving for individualism seems to be linked to the rejection of dependency. .

Humanitarianism • Americans tend to be charitable and willing to come to the aid of people less fortunate. . • Many companies try to appeal to consumers by emphasizing their concern for environmental and social issues.

•Youthfulness should not be confused with youth. which describes an age grouping .Youthfulness •Americans tend to place an almost sacred value on youthfulness.

and the continued increases in sales of vitamins. and jogging. . racquetball. including tennis. • This value has manifested itself in a number of ways. • Fitness and health are becoming lifestyle choices for many consumers.Fitness and Health • Americans’ preoccupation with fitness and health has emerged as a core value.

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Birthdays Grooming. Elections. Ritual Type Religious Rites of Passage Cultural Civic Group Family Personal Examples Baptism. Holidays Parades. Marriage Festivals. Trials Business Negotiations Mealtimes. Mass Graduation.Types of Ritual Experience A Ritual is a Set of Multiple. Meditation. Household . Symbolic Behaviors That Occur in a Fixed Sequence and That Tend to Be Repeated Periodically.

Holiday Rituals What Rituals Are Associated With the Following Holidays? Thanksgiving Valentine’s Day Secretaries’ Day Grandparents’ Day Christmas New Year’s Halloween .

as consumers from all walks of life can enjoy the low prices found in discount stores.Toward a shopping culture • “Shopping is what we do to create value in our lives‖ • Making this possible is the reality that great shopping experiences are no longer just for the rich. .

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