ERGONOMICS

1

2

3

DEFINITION  ERGONOMICS is defined as the science related to man and his work. 4 . and mechanical principles affecting the efficient use of human energy. physiologic. embodying the anatomic.

5 .

here are the ERGONOMICS to follow on… 6 .. Stay cool.

7 .

The posture depends upon the psychological. physical and surrounding environment of the person. 8 .

9 .

. like ligaments and muscles.. at. It gives stability by the close association of those vertebrae . 10  . The spine is nothing but the series of bones which are strong and are supportive.with the help of other supportive tissues. to the back.

Flexion Extension Side flexion.. 11 .. It has only 3 movements.

12

13

REPETITIVE STRESS INJURIES

14

” 15 . Before going to the topic here are the few facts ……. Among every 10 people in worlds software professionals. 3 are affected with a syndrome called “COMPUTER AFFECTIVE SYNDROME”… Which may include amongst is “RSI.

 CAUSES FOR INCREASING CLAIMS OF RSI IN INDUSTRIES: Bonus and OT incentives Work without rest Lack of proper training Failure of supervision Unsuitable tools 16 .

The continuous use of same body movement and sets of muscles responsible for that movement during the normal working shifts can lead to the onset initially of fatigue and ultimately of immediate or cumulative stress in local body area concerned. 17 .

. and it has become an addiction to them such …. The “COMPUTER” grabbed a major role in the life of people. here are the few examples of them……… 18 ..

19 .

20 .

OTHER NAMES ARE: Cumulative Trauma Disorder Repetitive Motion Injury. 21  .DEFINITION  An RSI is an injury caused by overusing muscles and bones through repeated movement that stresses the system.

CAUSES??? 22 .

23 .

       Rapid repetitive movements Lack of job variation Inadequate rest breaks Awkward positions Poor tool and equipments Increase in workload and timings Improper use of equipment 24 .

     Vibration Excessive force Changes in work force Lack of control on work Cold 25 .

The symptoms actually include: 26 .SYMPTOMS  They range from SLIGHT SENSE OF DISCOMFORT to EXTREME PAIN.

      Pain. Dry shiny palm. Tingling or burning sensations. Swelling around wrist / hand. Loss of sensation (numbness) especially at nights. 27 . dull ache. Aches/pains worse at nights.

Ganglion formation. Joint restriction/loss of movement.       Pins and needles discomfort. Crackling feeling when swollen tendons are pressed tightly. 28 . Muscle spasm. Clumsiness. Muscle weakness and fatigue.

29 .STAGES OF PAIN EARLY. TO INTERMEDIATE. TO ADVANCED.

RISK FACTORS  PSYCHOLOGICAL  ENVIRONMENTAL 30 .

 PHYSICAL FORCE POSTURE FREQUENCY/DURATION 31 .

  The REPETITIVE STRESS INJURIES occur due to the continuous stress on the part… Hence these are classified in accordance to the part of the body undergoing stress directly or indirectly…. 32 .

and the causes are also given…… 33 .. The following are the RSI’s occurring.

34  FLEXOR TENDINITIS  . caused by excessive finger motion or gripping of mouse. EXTENSOR TENDINITIS  Affects the muscles that straighten the finger. caused by holding hands in the “stop traffic” position. Affects the muscles used to bend fingers. as when using the mouse or keying.

 From excessive bending and/or deviating the wrist or other joint. Ruptured sheath swells with synovial fluid. GANGLION CYSTS: A tendon sheath disorder. causing a bump. 35 .

From holding thumbs while typing or hard-hitting of space bar. DeQuervain’s Disease: affects tendons on side of wrist at base of thumb. 36 .STENOSING TENOSYNOVITIS Types: DeQuervain’s Disease. Trigger Finger   Tendon moves with great difficulty through swollen sheath. Trigger Finger: tendon gets locked in swollen tendon sheath.

CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

37

Deltoid is the muscle which gets wasted easily in the human body if its not used regularly and vigorously. Its found that the deltoid muscle is seen weak in many of the computer operators as they less use this muscle.

38

39

 In the next slide. 40 . you will see the main pressure points in the body when u sit on chair….

41 .

AT WORK PLACE  The following slides shows how the main parts of the human body should be at work place…. 42 .

BACK AND LEGS 43 .

 Sit back and let back of the chair support your upper body Keep feet flat on the floor or use a footrest.   44 . Hips should be at 90° to 130° open angle.

 Avoid pressure on the back of the thighs from the front edge of chair.   45 . Legs should move freely under the desk. Learn to adjust your chair.

HEAD AND EYES 46 .

 Position head over hips. The monitor and keyboard should be directly in front of you. Position the monitor about arms length away with the first line of type at eye level or slightly below. 47   .

48  . It is also important to take frequent breaks to give your eyes a rest from the strain of close focusing for long periods. Ideally your eyes should be positioned from 20 to 25" from the screen with the screen positioned lower (rather then higher) to reduce neck strain.

Use a document holder and take vision breaks regularly. Avoid glare on the monitor screen. 49   . Hold the phone receiving rather than “cradling” it between shoulder and head.

 Not right 50 .

 Not right too… 51 .

52 .

SHOULDER AND ARMS 53 .

  54 . no leaning forward to the desk to work. Keep shoulders relaxed and arms close to your body. keep forearms somewhat parallel to the floor. When keying. Keep the workstation at proper height – no hunching of shoulders .

Avoid repetitive and excessive reaching. Use armrests to support your arms.  55 .

WRIST AND HANDS 56 .

57 . Keep wrists straight while keying and mousing.

 Keep hands and forearms off hard and sharp surfaces for long periods. Take mini breaks.  58 .

 Use light pressure on the key board.  59 . A wrist rest may be helpful to prevent contact stress and support wrists in a non-bent position.

Use of wrist supports helps in the correct position of wrist and also relives excessive and unwanted pressure on the area.

60

Wrist rest can be kept to relieve direct stress on it.

61

62

63 .

 WRONG 64 .

65 . CORRECT.

66 .

ORGANIZE YOUR WORKSTATION 67 .

68 .

    Have adequate desk space to store and organize work materials. 69 . Keep work area clean and well arranged. Keep frequently used items close. Remove the obstacles from under desk.

70 .

 71 . Have a footrest under your foot.SITTING PRACTICES  Adjust the seat of the chair so that your thighs are horizontal and your knees are at right angles.

. 72 . Prevent slouch sitting.

 Rest your back against backrest always. 73 .

 Avoid sitting for long periods. 74 . if possible. have a small walk in between.

75 .

 Sit close to your work. shoulders.  76 .. elbows and wrist along with your knee and ankle. Move your back. head.

 Adjust arm-rests so the shoulders are relaxed and the elbows at 90 degrees. Share a few light jokes with your colleagues every 30mins……brings you a general relaxation.  77 . Do not follow your sedentary lifestyle in work place.

use a footrest always.WORK SURFACE  It should be at about the height of elbows when the arms are hanging straight down when seated. As said. Give free room space for legs to move on at your foot level. 78   .

  Position the keyboard directly in front of you. 79 .KEY-BOARD AND MOUSE. Place all the items related to you at the armreach.  Position of keyboard to your wrist – straight with elbows at 90 degrees.

Use soft balls for pressing. 80 . Use wrist or palm supports in between. thereby preventing them to go into hypertrophy. which helps in strengthening the hand muscles.   Hold the mouse loosely with the palm and all fingers.

Move the mouse with whole arm initiating movement from the shoulder. Use light touch on mouse rather than pressing it hardly.  81 .

82 .

 Position the monitor in front of you.  The screen height should be at the eye-level or slightly below eye level. 83 .MONITOR PLACEMENT.

 The ARM-GUIDE rule should be followed. that is the distance between monitor and you is the arm length. 84 ..

OVERVIEW 85 .

86 .

87 .

Be aware of how you use your body during physical activities.  88 .HOME AND HOBBIES  Things do away from work can also contribute to physical strain and fatigue.

89 .

90 . Alternate job tasks to avoid repetitive motion. Break up tasks into smaller parts. Avoid using excessive force. Get help to lift heavy objects. Maintain natural postures.      Take mini-breaks and stretch throughout the day.

OFFICE STRETCHES 91 .

Flexibility/Stretching Exercises 92 .

  93 . Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times (come out of stretch very slowly.) Reverse side.Neck Stretch  Tilt ear toward shoulder. Reach up and touch top of head with palm to hold in tilted position.

94 .

Repeat 2-3 times 95    .Overhead Reach  Take a deep breath and reach up over head with both arms. Hold 5-10 seconds. Exhale and lower slowly.

96 .

Reach across body and grab back of chair. Pull gently to increase stretch in mid back.Chair Rotation Stretch     Sit in chair. 97 . wrap feet around chair legs. Repeat 5 times. Hold 5-10 seconds. and if you can.

98 .

Repeat 5 times. Pull shoulder blades back and down. and grasp hands together.Arms Behind Back Stretch  Hold hands behind back. 99 .   Hold 5 seconds.

100 .

WRIST AND HAND 101 .

 With fingers of other hand. **(Do not hold at the fingers to push down.  Keep shoulder relaxed when stretching.)** Hold for 5-10 seconds. 102 . gently press down above the knuckles-bending wrist down.

Repeat 2-3 times  103 . Hold arm straight at waist height.

104 .

) **  105 . ** (Do not pull on fingers. Hold onto palm of hand and stretch wrist back.Wrist extended/fingers point up  Hold arm straight at waist height with palm facing away from you and fingers pointing up.

Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times  106 . Make the fingers and thumb (on the hand that is pushing the other hand back) are kept together.

107 .

Repeat 2-3 times. but with fingers pointing towards the floor.   Do as above. 108 .Wrist extended/fingers point down . Hold 5-10 seconds.

109 .

LEISURE STRETCHES 110 .

Elbows should be at slightly below shoulder height.PECTORALIS CORNER STRETCH  Stand at a corner about a foot away from the wall with forearms on opposite sides of the corner. One foot should be forward. 111   . Keep abdominals tight to avoid arching back.

 Lean gently in towards corner by bending the front knee until a stretch is felt in front of the chest. Repeat 2-3 times.  112 . Hold 5-10 seconds.

113 .

 Raise arms up as you inhale. Place a firmly rolled towel under your shoulder blades across your upper back.Thoracic Spine Extension Stretch  Lie on your back with a pillow under your knees. 114 .

 Lower arms as you exhale. Do this 5 times.  115 . and hold a couple of seconds.

116 .

Let stomach sag. or if wrists are not compromised. press up through hands.PROP UPS OR PRESS UPS  Lie on stomach and either prop up on forearms. and allow back to arch without using back muscles. 117  .

press up and down slowly 10 times. hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 5 times. If propped on elbows.  118 . If on hands.

119 .

which gives a general body relaxation and relieves the stress and strain.RELAXING STRETCHES DURING BREAKS   The following stretches may be performed at any time during work. and are very simple and can easily be performed. 120 . It will generally take around 2-3 minutes.

121 .

122 .

123 .

124 .

125 .

126 .

127 .

128 .

MAJOR SPINAL AILMENTS RESULTING FROM BAD POSTURE AT WORK PLACE. 129 .

130 .

131 .

  This enables you to have breaks automatically on this set up…. Please try out for best results This site was found in the internet which would help people who are in front of system for more time…. 132 .

THE END 133 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful