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Competence only describes what has to be done, not how
A Competency illustrates how a job might be done, excellently
A competency map is a list of an individual’s competencies that represent the factors most critical to success in given jobs
Competency mapping is a process an individual uses to identify and describe competencies that are the most critical to success in a work situation or work role.
“Competency assessment” is a process whereby the competencies that are needed for performance of some kind are defined and then their use is assessed relative to how an individual used them to produce on or more expected outputs or results.
Helps measure performance Structured way of describing behavior Tool to help individuals identify strengths and development needs Mapping succession possibilities for employees within the organization Career development
An individual’s An individual’s competencies are a competencies are a key and driving key and driving element of their daily element of their daily performance, performance, achievements, and achievements, and their potential career their potential career paths. paths.
Result of collective individual competencies Organizational competencies have impact on organizational results –WORTH IDENTIFYING
Raymond competency LEADERSHIP, EXCELLENCE AND INNOVATION
Types of Competency
These competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry
These competencies include broad These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors). behaviors).
Organizational competency They are usually the result of collective individual competencies common throughout the organization. excellence and innovation Individual competency An individual’s competencies are a key and driving element of their daily performance. Raymond competency : . Organizational competencies have significant impact on organizational results and are worth identifying. achievements. .leadership. and their potential career paths. if not developing.
Functional/Technical Competencies These competencies include specific success factors within a given work function or industry. Personal Functioning Competencies. . These competencies include broad success factors not tied to a specific work function or industry (often focusing on leadership or emotional intelligence behaviors).
.Competency mapping is a process through which one assesses and determines one’s strengths as an individual worker and in some cases. as part of an organization .
No room for an individual to work in a field Little short-term benefit .
“Think of a specific time when you faced ____________? How did you handle the situation? How did it turn out?” CAR (circumstance. results). action. Structured Behavioral Interviewing Open-ended and situation-based questions such as. .
Competency assessment” is a process whereby the competencies that are needed for performance of some kind are defined and then their use is assessed relative to how an individual used them to produce on or more expected outputs or results .
LINKING COMPETENCIES TO PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES CREATING A MANAGEMENT ROLE PROFILE USING COMPETENCIES TO ASSESS PERFORMANCE LINKING PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES/COMPETENCIES TO INDIVIDUAL DEVELOPMENT PLANS .
Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills 2. Planning and Organizing. Set and agree SMART Leading and Developing objectives with team members Individuals and Teams. Plan and organise the workload for the team Leading and Developing Individuals and Teams. Managing Change Successful completion of tasks One-to-one meetings with for all team members team members (on-going) 3. members Interpersonal Skills. Planning and Organising.To be discussed at team to-one meetings to discuss member’s next appraisal training and development meeting (within the next year) needs and completion of Individual Development Plans . Discuss training and Leading and Developing development needs with team Individuals and Teams. Driving Innovation Successful completion of one.Specific objectives Competencies Indicators for Success Successful completion of objectives for all team members Timescales Objectives to be agreed at team member’s next appraisal meeting (within the next year) 1.
Management Competencies Low 1 Med -2 High-3 HOD Team Lead Team Member HOD Team Lead Team Member HOD Team Lead Team Member Being Customer Focused Driving Innovation Influencing Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills * * * * .
Management Competencies 1 Nil 2 Begin 3 Mature 4 Mastery 5 Excellence HOD TL TM HOD TL TM HOD TL TM HOD TL TM HOD TL TM Being Customer Focused # # Driving Innovation # Influencing # Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills .
Management Competencies Being Customer Focused Driving Innovation Influencing Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills 1 Nil 2 Begin 3 Mature 4 Mastery 5 Excellence + + + + .
62 percent Demonstrating Interpersonal Skills .Competency Being Customer Focused L 1 * M 2 H 3 1 2 3 4 5 # + # + Person score 1 6 Position 4 6 15 4 29 Driving Innovation * * * # Influencing + + # 6 4 17 58.
Target specific employees as “high potentials (hypos)” for future assignments. . Identify employees’ performance improvement and competency development needs.
Provide managers and individuals with information needed for creating and implementing the use of individual development plans . preferably in an exemplary manner. Match organization work that must be achieved with employees who possess the competencies required to successfully complete that work.
Provide managers with insights needed to effectively coach employees on the application of key job competencies Provide employees with information on their competency strengths which they can use for their own career planning and management .
Recruitment based on competency Training program Tailor-made competency model .
Compare their competency strengths with those required for successful performance of work of some kind Construct resumes or biographical sketches that match the individual’s competency strengths with those required for specific work assignments in an organization or other setting Identify one’s need to develop new or difference competency strengths or for fine-tuning existing competency strengths through the use of individual development planning .
Make known one’s competency strengths to those persons who are responsible for an organization’s human resource planning activities or for administering an organization’s succession efforts . Identify and gain support for pursuing competency development opportunities.
Communicate their competency strengths to organization leaders. Identify those competencies where one does not yet exhibit strength and thereby align oneself with work that will use one’s competency strengths to maximum advantage .
Either by filling questionnaire or by mentioning certain incidents wherein he feels he has made good use of certain competencies. . Self assessment Employee himself assess his competencies.
Main purpose of 360 degree feedback is to find out areas of strength and weakness. dealers etc. customers. immediate boss. areas where individual perceptions about themselves is different form others perception. colleagues. 360 Degree feedback involves questioning and consulting with everyone related to employee for e.:.g. friends. training and future leadership can be taken by there hidden strengths . These hidden weakness present opportunities for self improvement and there development. manager.peers.
Manager observes employees behavior and try to map whether employees are making proper use of the competencies and which competencies are developing. .
g. For e. manager might ask question like “do u wish there your life should be more exciting”. . This mainly includes a short interview between manager and the employee in which manager asks him questions which are related to how that person would react in given situation. After listening to the answer of the questions then they will try and map whether in real situation will that person use the required competences needed.while questioning a candidate who does sales role.:. By this manager will come to know as to how well that person applies required competencies in given situations.
. it is useful to get information from job holder’s peers.while collecting some critical incident data the views of job holder as how well employee did the work and how he made use of his competencies and which all competencies were improved in that process can be noted . For e. It might be useful to get information from customers or user group of intended job holder. colleagues and supervisors.:. The major benefit of collecting data from other sources of job holder is that it is useful for comparison. Later the same questions can be asked to the other markers and see the difference on views or how was there feedback for the same.g. To map employee’s competencies.
. It is comparatively easy to give job related feedback to employee. It reduces recency bias if recorders always keep on rating through the stipulated period. By noticing employee and writing down how well and when employee has being using his required competencies. Evaluation in such of technique is based on job behavior. In diary method of critical incident technique employee writes down the experiences and incidents in which one uses their competencies very well. it improves performance of person as well. Few incidents can be noticed by any of the peer or supervisors.
Decisions are then made by pooling shared data. There are five main ways in which that is so. – Iain Ballantyne and Nigel Povah . job related behaviors. A group of participants takes part in a variety of exercises observed by a team of trained assessors who evaluate each participant against a number of predetermined. The main feature of assessment centre is that they are a multiple assessment process.
which will be tested during the process. Predefine competencies . Job Analysis – To understand job challenges and the competencies required for successful execution of the job.Modeling the competencies. .
Behaviors displayed by participants must be classified into meaningful and relevant categories such as dimensions. competencies. aptitudes. qualities. Assessment techniques – These include a number of exercises to test the assesses of their potentials. abilities. skills. Behavioral classification . Each competency is tested through at least 2 exercises for gathering adequate evidence for the presence of particular competence. characteristics. . attributes. and knowledge.
. Observations – Accurate and unbiased observation is the most critical aspect of an AC. Simulations – The exercises should simulate the job responsibilities as closely as possible to eliminate potential errors in selection. They are given thorough training in the process prior to participating in the AC. Observers – Multiple observers are used to eliminate subjectivity and biases from the process.
. Recording Behavior – A systematic procedure of recording must be used by the assessors for future reference. Data Integration – The pooling of information from different assessors is done through statistical techniques. The recording could be in the form of hand written note. Reports – Each observer must make a detailed report of his observation before going for the discussion of integration of scores. behavioral checklist. audio-video recording etc.
Selection – ACs help organizations in getting the right people in. . Career development – The identification of the competencies possessed by the individual helps organization decide his career plans.
Potential appraisal – ACs help organizations identify if the person can handle the challenges offered in the next higher position. ACs reduces the risk of such wrong identification . Succession planning – Identifying the right individual for critical positions such as CEO. CFO etc is very important for the success of the organization. Identification of high potential managers – This creates a pool of managerial talents & multifunctional managers that would be available across the business group etc.
Management development – ACs provide ample opportunity to its participants to reflect on one’s capabilities and to improve by observing others perform in the AC. . This helps the organization in deciding the candidates who would have the necessary abilities to undertake the proposed challenging assignments. Allocations of challenging assignments – ACs provide the organization with the strengths and weaknesses of every participant.
Adjusting oneself in the global scenario is a critical requirement of some positions in the organization. which can be utilized. . ACs help organizations to identify such managers. Identification of a global pool of talented managers . for training. Identification of training needs – Assessment centers provide candidates and organization with concrete data on the improvement areas.
results after a definite period. before every • Make improvements in the • Define the competencies exercise. participant’s ratings.Pre AC During AC Post AC •Defining the objective of AC. at the end of the session. • Explain participants the • Compile reports of all purpose of the AC. position. • Distribute the competency exercise matrix sheets among • Evaluate the validity of • Identify the potential position observers. the participants and submit the list • Get approval for AC from the procedure it would follow and of selected concerned officials. and observers about the conduction of AC. • Conduct a discussion of all observers on every • Train the observers. • Inform the concerned people of the schedule. •Get feedback from participants • Schedule the AC. areas of every participant. • Identify the observers. • Conduct all exercises. design according to the required for the target recommendations. • Conduct job analysis. • Design the AC exercises • Make a report of the • Decide the rating strengths and improvement methodology. . holder and send them invitations. arrangements. participants to the concerned authorities. • Give instructions to the participants. • Make infrastructural • Give feedback to participants. its outcome.
prioritization of information. scenarios. Teamwork. and problem-solving tasks and personal attributes. Communication. Analytical skills. working under pressure Competencybased interview Includes personal history questions Interpersonal skills. Timemanagement. communication Includes research and retrieval of information on a given subject or interaction with the interviewer to obtain further information from them. business acumen.Tool Explanation Competency Case study interview Requires candidates to read a large set of information and then answer questions relating to the subject matter. professional Interaction Fact-finding exercise .
team Teamwork. Interpersonal effectiveness In-tray test Includes prioritizing documents. drafting replies to letters. and delegating important tasks Includes building a structure with limited materials Time-management. Business acumen Problem-solving task Creativity.Group exercise Includes problem solving Personal within a committee or assertiveness. Analytical skills. . lateral thinking. Resourcefulness.
teamwork. Extroversion /introversion. determined topic. Behavioral interaction Involves producing a concise written summary from a collection of documents. Written communication Written exercise . Agreeableness Psychometric/Personality/ Includes a personality Aptitude Tests questionnaire and/or numerical. verbal.Presentation Involves a 10 to 15 minute Assimilation of presentation on a preinformation. Role-play exercise Involves acting-out a Approach to business business-related situation situations. Conscientiousness. Personal Assertiveness. Summarization. presentation delivery. and diagrammatic reasoning tests.
This raises the validity of the assessment tool. it gives them an insight into their own performance thereby raises the credibility of the selection procedure. ACs map the next level challenges and simulate them in exercises. When participants see others handling the same exercise differently. The old way of evaluating the person based on past performance does not work many times. as the challenges of the next level are different from the challenges in the existing position Assessment centers not only help the organization in placing the right candidate for the right job/assignment but also helps in developing the participants. .
. even when conducted with selection purpose. It appeals to the lay person’s logic and therefore is regarded as a fair means of assessment by the participants. Assessment Centers. Assessment Centers can be customized for different kinds of jobs. assessment centers naturally gain support from them in the management decisions. do provide training to participants in the process. competencies and organizational requirements. By involving the line managers in the procedure. Also the assessors undergo training in the process which proves helpful for the organization.
The format of the assessment is similar to the first but in addition candidates must give a 15-minute presentation on a pre-determined topic. . Britvic operates a two-tiered graduate assessment centre recruitment process for its young manager graduate and mature graduate training programme. The first assessment centre typically involves up to 24 candidates across a general talent pool and tests six key competency areas within the following tests and exercises: a) Numerical reasoning tests b) One-to-one competency-based interviews c) Practical problem-solving task d) Two group or discussion exercises e) Verbal reasoning tests f) Working on exercises with employees currently on the graduate programme The second assessment centre focuses on specific job types and typically involves between 10 and 12 candidates.
S aerospace & Boeing Philips . KPMG Rolls Royce Unilever U.
For E.g. .patience.Competency cannot be bought. One can develop some competencies through Training Coaching Learning from others Few competencies cannot be developed through training.:.