Orkestrasi Strategi Kreatif Pesan dan Media Komunikasi Pemasaran

Hifni Alifahmi
Email: fahmi@spiritmarcom.com

How Brand Communication Works
4. Noise Physical and Psychological Distraction 2. Message Brand Messages Ads, PR Releases, Coupons, Signage, Customer Service 3. Communicatio n Channel/Media TV, Radio, Newspaper, Magazines, Internet, Mail, Phone 6. FeedbackInteractivity • Immediate Response • Delayed Response • No Response

1. Source (Encoding) Company Brand Agency

5. Receiver (Decoding) Customer Prospects Other Stakeholders

A good understanding of this model is necessary in order to understand all the various aspects of marketing communications. Tom Duncan, Principles of Advertising &

The Persuasion Matrix
DV: Steps in being Persuade
Message Presentation Attention Comprehension Yielding Retention Behavior
DV = Dependent Variables Catatan: Orkestrasi Strategi Kreatif Pesan dan Media perlu memperhatikan beberapa aspek tersebut, terutama faktor Khalayak (Receiver) yang dibidik dan Visi Perusahaan/Produk.

Sender Message Channel (3) (1)

Receiver

Destination

(4) (2)

Belch & Belch, 2007: 165

Source Factors
Source Attribute
Source Credibility:

Brief Description

• Applying expertise the source having relevant • Applying trustworthiness knowledge, skill, trust and • Corporate leaders as spokespeople experience • Limitation of credible sources (H-L) • Applying similarity Source Attractiveness: • Applying likeability (using celebrities): Source characteristic overshadowing the product (fail notice the (similarity, familiarity, brand), overexposure (endorsement for many likeability) ads), target audiences’ receptivity, risk to coy. • Perceive control (+ or – sanctions) Source Power: • Perceive concern (source’s care) The source may be able to induce another persons • Perceived scrutiny (source’s ability to observe conformity) to respond.

Belch & Belch, 2007: 167

Source Attributes & Receiver Processing Modes
Source Attribute
Source Credibility Source Attractiveness Source Power

Process

Internalization Identification Compliance

Belch & Belch, 2007: 167

Message Factors
Message Structure Order of presentation Message sidedness Verbal versus visual messages Descriptions
The most important message points be placed at the beginning (primacy effect) or at the end (recency effect: the last arguments are more persuasive ). A one-sided message (positive/benefits) A two-sided message ( good and bad points) Verbal: body copy, text Visual: non-verbal, pictures

Message Appeals: comparative ad, fear and humor appeals.

Belch & Belch, 2007: 179-185

Agencies’ Message Strategy Brief
Ogilvy & Mather
Product Key Issue/Problem The Promise The Support Competition Target (Market) Desired Behavior Target’s Net Impression Tone and Manner

DDB Worldwide
Marketing Objective Competitive Advantage Advertising Objective Action by Target Key Insight Reward/Support Brand Personality/Tone Position Media

Young & Rubicam
Key Fact Consumer Problem Advertising Objective Creative Strategy (Prospect Definition, Competition, Consumer Benefit, Reason Why)

Tom Duncan, 2005: 281.

Levels of Relationship with Brand

Emotions

Personality

Product benefits

Belch & Belch, 2007: 273

Emotional Appeals by Type
Type (%) Humor Warmth Nostalgia Eroticism Provocation Fear N 1975 11.5 69.7 1.8 17.0 1.2 10.3 165 1985 23.7 53.0 3.5 21.9 0.7 12.4 283 1995 34.3 43.6 1.1 17.1 5.5 9.4 181

Source: Van Riel, Strategic Corporate Communication, 2000: 151.

Catatan: Advertising Appeals (Rational & Emotional) dan Creative Execution: Art and Copy, lihat Arens, 2004: 377 dan 409.

A Hierarchy-of-Effects Model of Creative Element
Headlines, visuals

ATTENTION

INTEREST

Subheads, Lead paragraph

DESIRE

Body copy, boxes, Supporting visuals

ACTION

Closing paragraph, logo/slogan, Tagline, addresses, toll-free number

Duncan, 2005: 314

Creative Pyramid

Scan

William F Arens, 2004: 417

Channel Factors
Basic Media Media Effects Media Environment Media clutter

Personal versus Qualitative impact of non-personal fashion magazine to channels travel & leisure.

Belch & Belch, 2007: 186-188.

Media Classifications

Media

Print

Broadcast

Out-of-home

Interactive

Medium Newspapers

Magazines

Radio

Television

Billboards

Posters

Internet

Telephone

Vehicle

Chicago Sun-Times

Newsweek

WGN (radio Station in Chicago)

MTV

Lamar Outdoor Advertising

Denver Transit Advertising

America Online portal

TeleMarketing Agency

This chart shows media classification levels and groupings.

Tom Duncan, 2005: 346

Costumer-Centric & Media Touch Points

S e n s o r y R e c e p iu is

Touch
W at ch

Pa

rt

ic

ip

at

e

See H ear
Li st

R

ea

d

en

R a d io

P r in t

TV

W EB

T im e S p e n t

Out-of-Home Media

Outdoor
Billboards

Bulletins Spectacular displays Wall murals Vinyl-wrapped posters 30-sheet posters 8-sheet posters

Street Alternative furniture Arenas & Bus shelters media
Urban furniture Kiosks Convenienc e stores Shopping malls Stadiums Air-bone Marine Campuses Resort & Leisure Interior placebased Exterior placebased Digital camera Cinema

Transit
Buses Airports Mobil Subway & rail Truck-sides Taxi displays Wrapped vehicles

Radio Drive time Inoffice Instore

Belch & Belch, 2007: 415

Membidik Khalayak
(Receiver Factors)

Levels of Audience Aggregation

Mass Market and Audiences

Market Segment

Nice Market

Individual and Group Audience

Belch & Belch, 2007: 145

Models of the Response Process
Stages
Cognitive Stage

AIDA
Attention

Hierarchy of Effects Model
(Lavidge-Steiner) Awareness

Innovation Adoption Model
Awareness

Information Processing Model
Presentation Attention

Knowledge

Comprehension Interest Evaluation Trial Yielding Retention

Affective Stage

Interest Desire

Liking Preference Conviction

Behavioral Stage
Action Purchase

Adoption

Behavior

Belch & Belch, 2007: 146

Communication Effects Models and Objectives
AIDA DAGMAR Unawareness Awareness Interest Awareness Comprehension Awareness Knowledge Liking Desire Conviction Action
Wood, 2006

LavidgeSteiner

Objectives
50% awareness among 18-25 year olds within three years 20% increase in web hit rate within two months 10% request for brochure for local newspaper advertising Listed among top 3 national festival by 60% of audiences Top position among 18-25 year olds within 3 months Attain 10% of 18-25 year olds to choose the product 75% of audiences to use, buy, register within 3 months

Preference Conviction Purchase

Action

Advertising Effect on Consumer
Related Behavior Dimensions Movement toward purchase Example of types of promotion or advertising relevant to various steps

The realm of motives Ads stimulate or direct Desires

Purchase

Point of purchase retail store ads deals “last-chance” offers price appeals testimonials

Conviction The realm of emotions
Ads change attitude and feelings

Competitive ads argumentative copy

Preference Liking Knowledge Awareness

“image” copy status, glamour appeals Announcements, descriptive copy, classified ads, slogans, jingles, sky writing

The realm of thoughts
Ads provide information and facts

Teaser campaigns

Belch & Belch, 2007: 207

Communication Effect of Pyramid

5% Repurchase Regular use

20% Trial 25% Preference

40% Liking

70% Knowledge/Comprehension

90% Awareness
Belch & Belch, 2007: 208

Alternative Response Hierarchies
Topical Involvement High High (learning model) Cognitive Perceived product differentiation low (dissonance/attribution model) Conative Affective Cognitive Affective Affective Conative Conative low (low involvement model) Cognitive

Belch & Belch, 2007: 149

Foote, Cone & Belding Grid
Thinking
1. Informative (thinker)
High car-house-furnishingsmodel : learn-feel-do (economic?) Possible implications test Media : Recall diagnosis : long copy format demonstration involvement new products

Feeling
2. Affective (feeler)
jewelry-cosmetic-fashion apparel-motorcycles model : feel-learn-do (psychological?) Possible implications test media : attitude change emotional arousal : large space, image space

Creative : specific information

creative : Executional impact

3. Habit formation (doer)
Low food-household items (responsive) Possible implications Test Media : sales : small space ads 10 second ID’s Radio, POS Creative : Reminder involvement model : do-learn-feel

4. Self-satisfaction (reactor)
Cigarettes-liquor-candy Model : do-feel-learn (social?) Possible implications Test Media : sales : billboards newspaper POS Creative : Attention

Belch & Belch, 2007: 153

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