Basic Structure of Nucleic Acids

Acid
Monophosphate Diphosphate Triphosphate

5’ 4’

Base
1’ Adenine

Sugar
3’

Guanine Purine Thymine Cytosine Pyrimidine 2’ Uracil

Ribose, Deoxyribose

Nucleoside (Adenosine)
Nucleotide (Adenosine monophosphate, AMP)

Nucleotides Linked by Phosphodiester Bond

5’
PO4
2-

1
3’
O O-P=O O OH PO4
2-

5’

2
3’ OH

Phosphodiester bond

5’ P 1 R P 2 R P 3 R P 4 R P 5 R P 6 R 3’

A kind of phospho-polysaccharides

The Notation for Nucleic Acids
A T C G A T C G

5’
P OH

3’

B

R
P 5’

1’ 2’ 3’

5’

pApTpCpGpApTpCpG-OH 3’
5’ pATCGATCG-OH 3’

ATCGATCG

The Two Chains of DNA Are Antiparallel

5’
5’

3’

pApTpCpGpApTpCpG-OH 3’
5’ 5’

pCpGpApTpCpGpApT-OH 3’
3’

Characteristics of Double Helix

5’
1
2

3’

36 Å

3
4 5

Small groove

6

Large groove
7
8 9

10

1 Twist = 10.5 bp

5’

3’