SEMINAR ON HELLFIRE MISSILE SYSTEM

GUIDED BY SUBMITTED BY ARUN.KUMAR.V JOSE LECTURER 4/14/12
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CYRIL S7

INTRODUCTION
The name HELLFIRE comes from its original intention as a helicopter launched fire-and-forget weapon(HELicopter Launched FIRE –and-forget). •Hellfire is an air-to-ground, laser guided, subsonic missile with significant antitank capacity and is an extremely lethal and effective Click to edit Master subtitle style point weapon system capable of precision accuracy and destruction when properly employed.

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The name ‘fire-and-forget’ can be misleading.Hellfire is a guided munition that requires a coded laser beam to be directed on the target,and the missile will actually follow or track the properly coded beam which is deflected from the target to the point of impact. Thus the missile never actually acquires the target in question but rather seeks the laser beam. The laser designator or observer who directs the laser beam at the target is either airbourne or ground mounted and positively controls the missile after it is launched.

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HELLFIRE MISSILE IN ACTION

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STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
The program to develop a laser guided fire-andforget anti-armour missile was initiated in 1971. • In Oct 1976 Rockwell (now Boeing) was awarded a development contract for the newly designated  AGM 114A Hellfire missile. • Because Martin Marietta(now Lockheed Martin) offered a cheaper seeker for Hellfire than Rockwell, the former eventually became an equal Click to edit Master subtitle partner in Hellfire contract.style • Operational testing by the U.S. Army was completed in 1981 and full production was approved in 1982, and Initial Operational Capability of the AGM-114A with the U.S. Army was reached in 1985

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WHY LASER GUIDANCE

Unguided, or free-flight, rocket proved to be useful yet frequently inaccurate weapons during the World War II. This inaccuracy, often resulting in the need to fire many rockets to hit a single target, led to the search for a means to guide the rocket towards its target. The concurrent explosion of radio-wave technology (such as radar and radio detection devices) provided the first solution to this problem. Thus dawned the era of high-technology warfare an era that would quickly demonstrate its 4/14/12 cyril 66 problems as well as its promise.

The missiles were not able to hone in on targets smaller than factories, bridges, or warships. Circuits often proved fickle and would not function at all under adverse weather conditions. Another flaw emerged as jamming technologies flourished in response to the success of radar. There a need for a more reliable guidance method that was less vulnerable to jamming

That was when Dr. Theodore Maiman built the
first LASER at Hughes Research Laboratories in 1960.

The military realized the potential and later on Laser guided projectiles were used for the first time in the VIETNAM WAR
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WHAT IS LASER GUIDANCE?

Laser guidance is a technique of guiding a missile or other projectile or vehicle to a target by means of a laser beam. It uses a technique is called Semi-Active Laser Homing.
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VARIANTS OF HELLFIRE MISSILE
The Hellfire family of missiles consists of four generations:
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Basic (AGM-114A/B/C) Anti-ship interim (AGM-114F); Hellfire 2 (AGM-114K); Longbow (AGM-114L).

Ø

Ø

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All Hellfire missiles are similar in shape in that they have a cylindrical body with a dome shaped nose section that has four stabilising fins in a cruciform configuration. On the rear 4/14/12 cyril third of the missile around the motor1010 section

BASIC DETAILS

Weight Length Diameter Warhead tandem

100–108lb (45.4–49kg) 64 in (163 cm) 7 in (17.8 cm) High Explosive Anti-Tank (HEAT); 20 lb (9 kg) Metal augmented charge (MAC); 18 lb (8 kg) Blast Fragmentation Solid-fuel rocket 13 in (33 cm) 546 yd – 5 mi (500 m – 8 km) Mach 1.3 (950 mph; 425 m/s) Semi-active laser homing millimeter wave radar seeker cyril

Engine Wingspan Operational range Speed Guidance system

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Regardless of specific model, each Hellfire missile has five basic sections or major sub-components that allow it to operate during the sequence from launch to detonation. These sub-components are: Laser Seeker, Warhead,
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PARTS OF A HELLFIRE MISSILE

• 4/14/12 cyril Guidance Section,

Located in the nose of the missile, the laser seeker is programmed from inside the aircraft to receive a specific laser code. •When the missile recognizes this code being emitted from a designator and reflected off of the target, it “locks on” to this emission. •After lock-on, the seeker then sends this information to the guidance section which directs the missile to the target. •After receiving informationfrom the laser seeker, the “brains of the missile,” or guidance section,computes steering command data to stabilize the missile and then transmits this data to the control section. • The control section, located at the very aft end of the Click to edit Master subtitle style missile, contains a pneumatic actuation system that converts steering commands into mechanical fin movement. • It is this fin movement that directs air flow over the missile much like the wings on an airplane, allowing the missile to turn and maneuver toward the reflected laser energy of the target.

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The propulsion section is located between the guidance and control section,near the aft end of the missile. It has a solid fuel propellant that burns approximately2-3 seconds, depending on the outside air temperature. The purpose of the propulsion section is to generate the 10 Gs of thrust necessary for arming the missile,and powering it to the target.

The warhead is the last section to contribute to the firing sequence. Upon collision with the target, an impact sensor sends an electrical signal to a fuse in the rear of a 4/14/12 cyril 1414 copper-lined shape charge,causing detonation.

LASER SEEKER

Missiles often employ seeker heads for navigation,homing ,target detection purposes.Scanner heads usually includes a photo detecting sensor and optical filters, with which the missile can interpret laser wavelengths deflected off the target. The photo detecting sensor's most important part is its sensing dome, which can be made of glass, quartz, and/or silicon. Generally speaking homing seeker heads typically two modes.In the first mode of operation,namely a search/seek mode,the seeker head scans a wide fields-of-view searching and must extend forwardly from the tip of the missile. When a taget is detected,the seeker head generally operates in a second mode of opertaion namely a cruise/engage mode of operation this case the field of view is narrower than thecyril seacrh/seek field of view 1515 4/14/12

FIG 2A & B shows the partially cutaway portion of the nose FIG 3A & B shows the cross section of the nose
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SIMULATION OF HELLFIRE MISSILES

Employing Computer Generated Forces (CGF) in various military simulators is known to enhance the realism of their training environments. Existing Hellfire model revealed the need to improve performance to make the model adequate for the requirements of a complex, dynamic environment such as AVCATT-A( Aviation Combined Arms Tactical Trainer – Aviation Reconfigurable Manned Simulator)

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WHAT IS AVCATT

AVCATT (Aviation Combined Arms Tactical Trainer) is a mobile aviation training simulator that provides collective, unit-level training for Army,aviation reconnaissance, attack, assault. Unlike many other simulators, AVCATT allows for multiple simultaneous users.. AVCATT provides a flexible and portable training solution capable of rapid deployment and reconfiguration to meet strategic training needs. The AVCATT simulator is most commonly deployed in a two trailer configuration; each trailer can contain up to three cockpit simulators. One trailer houses an after-action review station used for brief/debriefing.
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HELLFIRE CONCEPTUAL MODEL
Unlike the original hellfire a physical model consists of three parts:flight dynamics,guidance system and laser seeker. LASER SEEKER MODEL:

Like a real working missile the model first collects data about all simulated laser spots located within the maximum detection distance from the seeker location. Clouds and smoke absorb electromagnetic energy and have to be taken into account. The laser seeker model calculates the overall thickness of smoke and cloud layers between the seeker and the spot. Only if the thickness is less than some threshold value, the seeker receives enough light to be able to detect the spot. The threshold value is a parameter and can be adjusted for better realism.
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GUIDANCE MODEL:
The conceptual model simulates all the deployment modes of a hellfire missile

LOBL(Lock On Before Launch) LOAL-HIGH(Lock On After Launch-High) LOAL-LOW(Lock On After Launch-Low) LOAL-DIRECT(Lock On After Launch-DIRECT)

 

For LOBL mode, the missile flight dynamics model is 4/14/12 cyril 2020 commanded to take a pitch at some angle relative to the spot

As for the three LOAL modes,the general principle is the same.

Immediately after takeoff the missile moves horizontally for a very short time. When far from the laser spot, the missile is directed at some parametrically defined angle above the line to spot. This angle is the highest for the LOAL-High mode and the lowest for the LOAL-Direct mode. If the laser seeker model does not receive emission from a spot or for an initial period in a LOAL mode, the missile will be directed to fly the preprogrammed way.

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Flight Dynamics Model:

The flight dynamics model determines the ability of the Hellfire missile to perform the maneuvers commanded by the guidance model. The missile can change its orientation in flight by modifying its pitch and yaw angles. The rate of change is limited by a maximum turn rate, which is a parameter.

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MODEL VALIDATION

The realistic representation of Hellfire missile trajectories is of much importance for the creation of an adequate training enviornment. One of the advantages of the Hellfire system is the missile can be launched by a helicopter hidden with terrain; the missile then will be guided to the target by a remote designator. The missile trajectory must go over a hill or a mountain and bad trajectory simulation will inevitably lead to the wrong engagement end result. Thus, to validate the creation of an adequate training environment model, we need to compare the real 4/14/12simulated trajectories with that of 2424 cyril

COMPARISON BETWEEN THE REAL MISSILE FLIGHT TRAJECTORIES AND THE SIMULATED ONES

FIG 1 slowly ascends and sharply descends similar to that in real life as shown in FIG 2 in an LOBL mode.

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Flying in LOAL-Direct mode the missile initially climbs at a constant rate until a designator lights a target.Then this climb stops and the missile follows a path similar to the LOBL mode. The simulated trajectory shows the path followed by a AGM114K which ascends with a constantrate and then descends.
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The Fig 2 shows the simulated LOAL-Low trajectory and it has all the components of the real one shown on Fig 1

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The Fig 2 shows the simulated LOAL-High trajectory and it has all the components of the real one shown on Fig 1.
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CONCLUSION
The new Hellfire missile physical model is now implemented in AVCATT-A system. Its existence demonstrates progress towards realism and increases sophistiscation in weapons modeling in CGF. Inspection and testing of the improved Hellfire missile model has revealed the simulated trajectories to be sufficiently similar to the realworld trajectories, to support its validation for use with AVCATT-A. As a result, the AVCATT-A system is enhanced so Army aviators receive better training through use of real world physical representation.

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