pancreas is an accessory organ which lies right below the stomach. It produces many of the digestive enzymes and also secretes and alkaline
that helps neutralize the acid in chyme.
Exocrine: - secretes pancreatic juice into the lumen of the pancreatic duct
Endocrine: - secretes insulin, glucagon, somatostatin into the blood.
Spongy gland – retroperitoneal Posterior to stomach Endocrine & exocrine function Exocrine cells – acinar cells produce 1200 to 1500 ml pancreatic juice /day Pancreatic duct delivers juices to duodenum At hepatopancreatic ampulla
Insert fig. 18.26
Secrete pancreatic juice.
– Islets of
Secrete insulin and glucagon.
The main digestive function of the pancreas is to secrete the enzymes that break down the macromolecules in food and to produce smaller nutrient molecules for intestinal absorption.
Pancreatic enzymes are essential for digestion
Composition of pancreatic juice
juice consists mainly of water, enzymes, and bicarbonate ions. This high pH enables pancreatic fluid to neutralize the acid chyme entering the duodenum and provides and optimal environment for the activity of enzymes
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Pancreatic amylase Pancreatic lipase fat-digesting enzymes Cholesterol esterase Nucleases – DNAse and RNAse Protein-digesting enzymes
trypsinogen chymotrypsinogen procarboxypeptisase secreted in inactive form activated in small intestine by enterokinase
Water Enzymes – pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, nucleases Zymogens – trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase( intestinal lumen trypsinogen activated to trypsin by enterokinase ; trypsin converts chymotrypsinogen chymotrypsin and procarboxypeptidase carboxypeptidase = protein digestion) Sodium bicarbonate – buffers HCl from stomach
Contains H20, HC03- and digestive enzymes.
Complete digestion of food requires action of both pancreatic and brush border enzymes.
– Most pancreatic enzymes
are produced as zymogens. – Trypsin (when activated by enterokinase) triggers the activation of other pancreatic enzymes.
Pancreatic trypsin inhibitor attaches to trypsin.
– Inhibits its activity in the
Exocrine secretes 1,200-1,500 mL of pancreatic juice per day into the main pancreatic duct.
It empties into duodenum when hepato-pancreatic sphincter opens.
Pancreatic secretion acini duct acinus Pancreatic enzymes
H2O, Na+, HCO3-, other ions
Pancreatic protease’s are secreted in an inactive form and activated in the duodenum. This prevents the pancreas from self-digestion. For example, within the duodenum, trypsiongen is activated to trypsin by enterokinase, and intestinal brush border enzyme. Trypsin, a proteolytic enzyme, then activates procarboxypeptidase and chymotrypsinogen.
like the secretion of bile, parasympathetic nerve stimulation leads to the release of pancreatic juice. Also, secretin leads to the release of the watery, bicarbonate rich component and the cholecystokinin leads to the release of the enzyme rich component of the pancreatic juice.
Disaccharides and trisaccharides
Fatty acids and monoglycerides Cholesterol esters
Acini also secrete trypsin inhibitor trypsin inhibitor prevents the activation of trypsin, therefore inhibit the other proteolytic enzymes trypsin inhibitor prevents the digestion of pancreas by trypsin and other enzymes When the pancreas is severely damaged, large quantities of pancreatic secretion become pooled in the damaged areas of the pancreas. Under these conditions, the effect of trypsin inhibitor is sometimes overwhelmed, so pancreatic secretions become activated and literally digest the pancreas, which produce a kind of disease called acute pancreatitis
Secretion of bicarbonate ions
There are large numbers of HCO3- in the pancreatic juice, which could neutralize the HCl emptied into the duodenum from the stomach
Osmotic pressure increase
Regulation of pancreatic secretion
three basic stimuli are important in causing pancreatic secretion
Intestinal mucosa cholystokinin
Stimulate the acinar cells of the pancreas much more than the ductal cells Cause production of large quantities of pancreatic enzymes but relatively small quantities of fluid and ions
Cause production of large quantities of fluid and ions but relatively small quantities of pancreatic enzymes
Phases of pancreatic secretion Account for 20% of the total secretion of pancreatic enzymes after a meal 5 to 10% Secretin intestinal phase
Cephalic phase gastric phase
Secretin Acid chyme “S” cells secretin
Secrete large quantities of water and NaHCO3
Secretin is absorbed into the blood
NaHCO3 Neutralize HCl coming from the stomach
HCl+ NaHCO3 =NaCl+H2CO3
Provides an appropriate pH for action of the pancreatic enzymes, which function optimally in a slightly alkaline or neutral
Protect the stomach mucosa
cholecystokinin Break down products of food “I” cells cholecystokinin cholecystokinin is absorbed into the blood
Secrete large quantities of pancreatic enzymes
Regulation of Bile and Pancreatic Secretion
- secreted in response to similar stimuli. -Cephalic and Gastric phases The vagus nerves stimulate pancreatic secretion.
The Intestinal Phase
- Chyme with acid and fat, stimulate the duodenal mucosa to secrete
1) relaxation of the hepatopancreatic sphincter, 2) the contraction of the gallbladder 3) secretion of pancreatic juice and enzymes.
The Intestinal Phase
- Acidic chyme also stimulates the duodenum to release secretin.
secretion of bicarbonate by both the hepatic and pancreatic ducts
psychic stimuli stretch of stomach
acid chyme in duodenum
increased parasympathetic impulses via vagus nerve
enteroendocrine cells stimulated
increased pancreatic secretion
increased secretion of bicarbonate ions
increased secretion of enzymes