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# Groundwater Modeling - 1

Groundwater Hydraulics

Daene C. McKinney
Modeling Process
Problem identification
Important elements to be modeled
Relations and interactions between them
Degree of accuracy
Conceptualization and development
Mathematical description
Type of model
Numerical method - computer code
Grid, boundary & initial conditions
Calibration
Estimate model parameters
Model outputs compared with actual outputs
Parameters adjusted until the values agree
Verification
Independent set of input data used
Results compared with measured outputs
Problem identification
and description
Model verification &
sensitivity analysis
Model Documentation
Model application
Model calibration &
parameter estimation
Model
conceptualization
Model
development
Data
Present results
Tools to Solve Groundwater Problems
Physical and analog methods
Some of the first methods used.
Analytical methods
What we have been discussing so far
Difficult for irregular boundaries, different
boundary conditions, heterogeneous and
anisotropic properties, multiple phases,
nonlinearities
Numerical methods
Transform PDEs governing flow of
groundwater into a system of ODEs or
algebraic equations for solution

www.epa.state.oh.us
www.isws.illinois.edu
Conceptual Model
Descriptive representation of
groundwater system
incorporating interpretation
of geological & hydrological
conditions
What processes are important
to model?
What are the boundaries?
What parameter values are
available?
What parameter values must
be collected?
What Do We Really Want To Solve?
Horizontal flow in a leaky confined aquifer

Governing Equations
Boundary Conditions
Initial conditions

x
T
x
h
x

+

y
T
y
h
y

+
K'
b'
(h
0
h) t Q
w
(x x
w
)
w1
W
S
h
t
Ground surface
Bedrock
Confined aquifer
Q
x
K

x
y
z
h
Head in confined aquifer
Confining Layer
b
Flux Leakage Source/Sink Storage
Finite Difference Method
Finite-difference method
Replace derivatives in governing equations with
Taylor series approximations
Generates set of algebraic equations to solve

x
T
x
h
x

+

y
T
y
h
y

+
K'
b'
(h
0
h) t Q
w
(x x
w
)
w1
W
S
h
t
1
st
derivatives

2
h
x
2

S
T
h
t
2
nd
derivatives
Taylor Series
Taylor series expansion of h(x) at a point x+Dx
close to x

If we truncate the series after the n
th
term, the
error will be

First Derivative - Forward
Consider the forward Taylor series expansion of a function
h(x) near a point x

Solve for 1
st
derivative

h(x)
x
x x D
x D

h(x)
x
x x D
x D
First Derivative - Backward
Consider the backward Taylor series expansion of a function
f(x) near a point x

Solve for 1
st
derivative

h(x)
x
x x D
x D

h(x)
x
x x D
x D
Second Derivative - Central

h (x) Add and solve for
Finite Difference Approximations

h
i+1

h(x)
x

i +1
x D

h
i

i

h
i 1

i 1
x D
1
st
Derivative
(Backward)
1
st
Derivative
(Forward)
2
nd
Derivative
(Central)
Grids and Discretrization
Discretization process
Grid defined to cover domain
Goal - predict values of head at
node points of mesh
Determine effects of pumping
Flow from a river, etc
Finite Difference method
Popular due to simplicity
Attractive for simple geometry

i,j

i,j+1

i+1,j

i-1,j

i,j-1

x, i
y, j
Domain
Mesh
Node point
D x
D
y
Grid cell

Notation
h(x, y, z, t) h
i, j,k
l
Three-Dimensional Grids
An aquifer system is divided into rectangular blocks by a grid.
The grid is organized by rows (i), columns (j), and layers (k),
and each block is called a "cell"
Types of Layers
Confined
Unconfined
Convertible
Layers can be
different materials

1-D Confined Aquifer Flow
Homogeneous, isotropic,
1-D, confined flow
Governing equation

Initial Condition

Boundary Conditions

x
T
h
x

S
h
t
Ground surface
Aquifer
x
y
z
h
B
Confining Layer
b
h
A
Dx
i = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Node
Grid Cell
h(x 0, t)
h(x L, t)
h(x, t 0)
Derivative Approximations
Governing Equation

Need 2nd derivative WRT x

Need 1st derivative WRT t

2
h
x
2

S
T
h
t
Forward Backward
l i , 1
i x,
l t,
1 , l i
l i , 1
1 , l i
x D
t D
l i,
Explicit Method
Use all the information at
the previous time step to
compute the value at this
time step.
Proceed point by point
through the domain.
Can be unstable for large
time steps.
l i , 1
x axis
(index i)
t axis(indexl)
1 , l i
l i , 1
1 , l i
x D
t D
l i,

2
h
x
2

S
T
h
t
FD Approx.
Explicit Method

h
i
l+1
h
i
l
+r h
i-1
l
2h
i
l
+h
i+1
l
( )
l+1 time level
unknown
l time level
known
1-D Confined Aquifer Flow
Initial Condition

Boundary Conditions
Ground surface
Aquifer
x
y
z
h
B
Confining Layer
b
h
A
Dx
i = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Node
Grid Cell
L
h(0, t) 6.1 m
h(L, t) 1.5 m
Dx = 1 m

L = 10 m

T=bK = 0.75 m
2
/d

S = 0.02

h(x, 0) 6.1 m
Explicit Method
Ground surface
Aquifer
h
B
Confining Layer
b
h
A
Dx
i = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Node
Grid Cell

h
i
l+1
h
i
l
+r(h
i-1
l
2h
i
l
+h
i+1
l
)
Consider:
r = 0.48

r = 0.52
D t rD x
2
S
T
(0.48)(1)
2
0.02
0.75
0.0128d 18.5min
Dx = 1 m
L = 10 m
T = 0.75 m
2
/d
S = 0.02
Explicit Results (Dt = 18.5 min; r = 0.48 < 0.5)
Explicit Results (Dt = 20 min; r = 0.52 > 0.5)
Whats Going On Here?
At time t = 0 no flow
At time t > 0 flow
Water released from storage
in a cell over time Dt

Water flowing out of cell
over interval Dt
Ground surface
Aquifer
h
B
Confining Layer
b
h
A
Dx
i = 0 1 2 i-1 i i+1 8 9 10
Dx
Grid Cell i
T
D h
D x / 2
D t SD xD h
r
T
S
D t
D x
2

1
2
r > 0.5
Tme interval is too large
Cell doesnt contain enough water
Causes instability
Implicit Method
Use information from one
point at the previous time
step to compute the value
at all points of this time
step.
Solve for all points in
domain simultaneously.
Inherently stable
l i , 1
i x,
l t,
1 , l i
l i , 1
1 , l i
x D
t D
l i,
1 , 1 l i 1 , 1 l i
1 , 1 l i 1 , 1 l i

2
h
x
2

S
T
h
t
FD Approx.
Implicit Method

rh
i-1
l+1
+(1+2r)h
i
l+1
rh
i+1
l+1
h
i
l
l+1 time level
unknown
l time level
known
2-D Steady-State Flow
General Equation

Homogeneous, isotropic aquifer, no well

Equal spacing (average of cells)

2
h
x
2
+

2
h
y
2
0

x
T
x
h
x

+

y
T
y
h
y

t Q
w
w1
W
S
h
t
j y,
i x,
x D
y D
) 4 , 1 ( ) 4 , 2 ( ) 4 , 3 ( ) 4 , 4 (
) 3 , 1 ( ) 3 , 2 ( ) 3 , 3 ( ) 3 , 4 (
) 2 , 1 ( ) 2 , 2 ( ) 2 , 3 ( ) 2 , 4 (
) 1 , 1 ( ) 1 , 2 ( ) 1 , 3 ( ) 1 , 4 (
) 0 , 1 ( ) 0 , 2 ( ) 0 , 3 ( ) 0 , 4 (
) 5 , 1 ( ) 5 , 2 ( ) 5 , 3 ( ) 5 , 4 (
) 4 , 0 (
) 3 , 0 (
) 2 , 0 (
) 1 , 0 (
) 4 , 5 (
) 3 , 5 (
) 2 , 5 (
) 1 , 5 (
) 4 , 5 (
) 5 , 1 (
Node No.
Unknown heads
Known heads

h
i,j

h
i-1,j
+ h
i+1,j
+ h
i,j-1
+ h
i,j+1
4
2-D Heterogeneous Anisotropic Flow

x
T
x
h
x

+

y
T
y
h
y

0

j+1
j-1
j
i-1

i i+1
i+1/2
j+1/2
j-1/2
x
y
Q
x,i+1/2
Q
x,i-1/2

Q
y,j+1/2

Q
y,j-1/2

Dx
Dy
node (i,j)
i-1/2
cell (i,j)
T
x
and T
y
are transmissivities in the
x and y directions
2-D Heterogeneous Anisotropic Flow
Harmonic average transmissivity

T
i+1/ 2,j
x
2
T
i+1,j
x
T
i,j
x
T
i+1,j
x
+T
i,j
x

A
i,j
h
i+1,j
+ B
i,j
h
i 1,j
+C
i,j
h
i,j+1
+ D
i,j
h
i,j 1
+ E
i,j
h
i,j
0
Transient Problems

x
T
x
h
x

+

y
T
y
h
y

S
h
t

A
i,j
h
i+1,j
l+1
+ B
i,j
h
i-1,j
l+1
+C
i,j
h
i,j+1
l+1
+ D
i,j
h
i,j-1
l+1
+ E
i,j
h
i,j
l+1
F
i,j
h
i,j
l
MODFLOW
USGS supported mathematical model
Uses finite-difference method
Several versions available
MODFLOW 88, 96, 2000, 2005
(water.usgs.gov/nrp/gwsoftware/modflow.html)
Graphical user interfaces for MODFLOW:
GWV (www.groundwater-vistas.com)
GMS (www.ems-i.com)
PMWIN (www.ifu.ethz.ch/publications/software/pmwin/index_EN)
Each includes MODFLOW code
What Can MODFLOW Simulate?

1. Unconfined and confined aquifers
2. Faults and other barriers
3. Fine-grained confining units and
interbeds
4. Confining unit - Ground-water
flow and storage changes
5. River aquifer water exchange
6. Discharge of water from drains
and springs
7. Ephemeral stream - aquifer water
exchange
8. Reservoir - aquifer water exchange
9. Recharge from precipitation and
irrigation
10. Evapotranspiration
11. Withdrawal or recharge wells
12. Seawater intrusion