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Groundwater Hydraulics

Daene C. McKinney

Modeling Process

Problem identification

Important elements to be modeled

Relations and interactions between them

Degree of accuracy

Conceptualization and development

Mathematical description

Type of model

Numerical method - computer code

Grid, boundary & initial conditions

Calibration

Estimate model parameters

Model outputs compared with actual outputs

Parameters adjusted until the values agree

Verification

Independent set of input data used

Results compared with measured outputs

Problem identification

and description

Model verification &

sensitivity analysis

Model Documentation

Model application

Model calibration &

parameter estimation

Model

conceptualization

Model

development

Data

Present results

Tools to Solve Groundwater Problems

Physical and analog methods

Some of the first methods used.

Analytical methods

What we have been discussing so far

Difficult for irregular boundaries, different

boundary conditions, heterogeneous and

anisotropic properties, multiple phases,

nonlinearities

Numerical methods

Transform PDEs governing flow of

groundwater into a system of ODEs or

algebraic equations for solution

www.epa.state.oh.us

www.isws.illinois.edu

Conceptual Model

Descriptive representation of

groundwater system

incorporating interpretation

of geological & hydrological

conditions

What processes are important

to model?

What are the boundaries?

What parameter values are

available?

What parameter values must

be collected?

What Do We Really Want To Solve?

Horizontal flow in a leaky confined aquifer

Governing Equations

Boundary Conditions

Initial conditions

x

T

x

h

x

+

y

T

y

h

y

+

K'

b'

(h

0

h) t Q

w

(x x

w

)

w1

W

S

h

t

Ground surface

Bedrock

Confined aquifer

Q

x

K

x

y

z

h

Head in confined aquifer

Confining Layer

b

Flux Leakage Source/Sink Storage

Finite Difference Method

Finite-difference method

Replace derivatives in governing equations with

Taylor series approximations

Generates set of algebraic equations to solve

x

T

x

h

x

+

y

T

y

h

y

+

K'

b'

(h

0

h) t Q

w

(x x

w

)

w1

W

S

h

t

1

st

derivatives

2

h

x

2

S

T

h

t

2

nd

derivatives

Taylor Series

Taylor series expansion of h(x) at a point x+Dx

close to x

If we truncate the series after the n

th

term, the

error will be

First Derivative - Forward

Consider the forward Taylor series expansion of a function

h(x) near a point x

Solve for 1

st

derivative

h(x)

x

x x D

x D

h(x)

x

x x D

x D

First Derivative - Backward

Consider the backward Taylor series expansion of a function

f(x) near a point x

Solve for 1

st

derivative

h(x)

x

x x D

x D

h(x)

x

x x D

x D

Second Derivative - Central

h (x) Add and solve for

Finite Difference Approximations

h

i+1

h(x)

x

i +1

x D

h

i

i

h

i 1

i 1

x D

1

st

Derivative

(Backward)

1

st

Derivative

(Forward)

2

nd

Derivative

(Central)

Grids and Discretrization

Discretization process

Grid defined to cover domain

Goal - predict values of head at

node points of mesh

Determine effects of pumping

Flow from a river, etc

Finite Difference method

Popular due to simplicity

Attractive for simple geometry

i,j

i,j+1

i+1,j

i-1,j

i,j-1

x, i

y, j

Domain

Mesh

Node point

D x

D

y

Grid cell

Notation

h(x, y, z, t) h

i, j,k

l

Three-Dimensional Grids

An aquifer system is divided into rectangular blocks by a grid.

The grid is organized by rows (i), columns (j), and layers (k),

and each block is called a "cell"

Types of Layers

Confined

Unconfined

Convertible

Layers can be

different materials

1-D Confined Aquifer Flow

Homogeneous, isotropic,

1-D, confined flow

Governing equation

Initial Condition

Boundary Conditions

x

T

h

x

S

h

t

Ground surface

Aquifer

x

y

z

h

B

Confining Layer

b

h

A

Dx

i = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Node

Grid Cell

h(x 0, t)

h(x L, t)

h(x, t 0)

Derivative Approximations

Governing Equation

Need 2nd derivative WRT x

Need 1st derivative WRT t

2

h

x

2

S

T

h

t

Forward Backward

l i , 1

i x,

l t,

1 , l i

l i , 1

1 , l i

x D

t D

l i,

Explicit Method

Use all the information at

the previous time step to

compute the value at this

time step.

Proceed point by point

through the domain.

Can be unstable for large

time steps.

l i , 1

x axis

(index i)

t axis(indexl)

1 , l i

l i , 1

1 , l i

x D

t D

l i,

2

h

x

2

S

T

h

t

FD Approx.

Explicit Method

h

i

l+1

h

i

l

+r h

i-1

l

2h

i

l

+h

i+1

l

( )

l+1 time level

unknown

l time level

known

1-D Confined Aquifer Flow

Initial Condition

Boundary Conditions

Ground surface

Aquifer

x

y

z

h

B

Confining Layer

b

h

A

Dx

i = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Node

Grid Cell

L

h(0, t) 6.1 m

h(L, t) 1.5 m

Dx = 1 m

L = 10 m

T=bK = 0.75 m

2

/d

S = 0.02

h(x, 0) 6.1 m

Explicit Method

Ground surface

Aquifer

h

B

Confining Layer

b

h

A

Dx

i = 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Node

Grid Cell

h

i

l+1

h

i

l

+r(h

i-1

l

2h

i

l

+h

i+1

l

)

Consider:

r = 0.48

r = 0.52

D t rD x

2

S

T

(0.48)(1)

2

0.02

0.75

0.0128d 18.5min

Dx = 1 m

L = 10 m

T = 0.75 m

2

/d

S = 0.02

Explicit Results (Dt = 18.5 min; r = 0.48 < 0.5)

Explicit Results (Dt = 20 min; r = 0.52 > 0.5)

Whats Going On Here?

At time t = 0 no flow

At time t > 0 flow

Water released from storage

in a cell over time Dt

Water flowing out of cell

over interval Dt

Ground surface

Aquifer

h

B

Confining Layer

b

h

A

Dx

i = 0 1 2 i-1 i i+1 8 9 10

Dx

Grid Cell i

T

D h

D x / 2

D t SD xD h

r

T

S

D t

D x

2

1

2

r > 0.5

Tme interval is too large

Cell doesnt contain enough water

Causes instability

Implicit Method

Use information from one

point at the previous time

step to compute the value

at all points of this time

step.

Solve for all points in

domain simultaneously.

Inherently stable

l i , 1

i x,

l t,

1 , l i

l i , 1

1 , l i

x D

t D

l i,

1 , 1 l i 1 , 1 l i

1 , 1 l i 1 , 1 l i

2

h

x

2

S

T

h

t

FD Approx.

Implicit Method

rh

i-1

l+1

+(1+2r)h

i

l+1

rh

i+1

l+1

h

i

l

l+1 time level

unknown

l time level

known

2-D Steady-State Flow

General Equation

Homogeneous, isotropic aquifer, no well

Equal spacing (average of cells)

2

h

x

2

+

2

h

y

2

0

x

T

x

h

x

+

y

T

y

h

y

t Q

w

w1

W

S

h

t

j y,

i x,

x D

y D

) 4 , 1 ( ) 4 , 2 ( ) 4 , 3 ( ) 4 , 4 (

) 3 , 1 ( ) 3 , 2 ( ) 3 , 3 ( ) 3 , 4 (

) 2 , 1 ( ) 2 , 2 ( ) 2 , 3 ( ) 2 , 4 (

) 1 , 1 ( ) 1 , 2 ( ) 1 , 3 ( ) 1 , 4 (

) 0 , 1 ( ) 0 , 2 ( ) 0 , 3 ( ) 0 , 4 (

) 5 , 1 ( ) 5 , 2 ( ) 5 , 3 ( ) 5 , 4 (

) 4 , 0 (

) 3 , 0 (

) 2 , 0 (

) 1 , 0 (

) 4 , 5 (

) 3 , 5 (

) 2 , 5 (

) 1 , 5 (

) 4 , 5 (

) 5 , 1 (

Node No.

Unknown heads

Known heads

h

i,j

h

i-1,j

+ h

i+1,j

+ h

i,j-1

+ h

i,j+1

4

2-D Heterogeneous Anisotropic Flow

x

T

x

h

x

+

y

T

y

h

y

0

j+1

j-1

j

i-1

i i+1

i+1/2

j+1/2

j-1/2

x

y

Q

x,i+1/2

Q

x,i-1/2

Q

y,j+1/2

Q

y,j-1/2

Dx

Dy

node (i,j)

i-1/2

cell (i,j)

T

x

and T

y

are transmissivities in the

x and y directions

2-D Heterogeneous Anisotropic Flow

Harmonic average transmissivity

T

i+1/ 2,j

x

2

T

i+1,j

x

T

i,j

x

T

i+1,j

x

+T

i,j

x

A

i,j

h

i+1,j

+ B

i,j

h

i 1,j

+C

i,j

h

i,j+1

+ D

i,j

h

i,j 1

+ E

i,j

h

i,j

0

Transient Problems

x

T

x

h

x

+

y

T

y

h

y

S

h

t

A

i,j

h

i+1,j

l+1

+ B

i,j

h

i-1,j

l+1

+C

i,j

h

i,j+1

l+1

+ D

i,j

h

i,j-1

l+1

+ E

i,j

h

i,j

l+1

F

i,j

h

i,j

l

MODFLOW

USGS supported mathematical model

Uses finite-difference method

Several versions available

MODFLOW 88, 96, 2000, 2005

(water.usgs.gov/nrp/gwsoftware/modflow.html)

Graphical user interfaces for MODFLOW:

GWV (www.groundwater-vistas.com)

GMS (www.ems-i.com)

PMWIN (www.ifu.ethz.ch/publications/software/pmwin/index_EN)

Each includes MODFLOW code

What Can MODFLOW Simulate?

1. Unconfined and confined aquifers

2. Faults and other barriers

3. Fine-grained confining units and

interbeds

4. Confining unit - Ground-water

flow and storage changes

5. River aquifer water exchange

6. Discharge of water from drains

and springs

7. Ephemeral stream - aquifer water

exchange

8. Reservoir - aquifer water exchange

9. Recharge from precipitation and

irrigation

10. Evapotranspiration

11. Withdrawal or recharge wells

12. Seawater intrusion

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