Types of goniometer
• Universal goniometer • Gravity dependant goniometer or inclinometer Pendular goniometer Fluid or Bubble goniometer • Electrogoniometer

Universal goniometer .

or from 0 to 360 degrees and from 360 to 0 degrees on the full circle models. the screw-like device can be tightened to fix the moving arm in a certain position or loosened to permit free movement. The scale can extend either from 0 to 180 degrees and 180 to 0 degrees for the half circle models. . hip. The body of the goniometer is designed like a protractor and may form a full or half circle. The moving arm is attached to the fulcrum in the center of the body by a rivet or screw-like device that allows the moving arm to move freely on the body of the device In some instruments . and rotation in the shoulder. wrist.• The traditional goniometer. consists of three parts: – A body. and ankle. elbow. abduction and adduction. which can be used for flexion and extension. knee.The intervals on the scales can vary from 1 to 10 degrees – A stationary arm. A measuring scale is located around the body. The stationary arm is structurally a part of the body and therefore cannot move independently of the body – A moving arm.

Gravity dependant Goniometers Pendular Goniometers .

Bubble or fluid Inclinometers .

knee. abduction and adduction. and rotation in the neck.Bubble goniometer. shoulder. and the spine. hip. ADV:The bubble goniometer. DIS: . ankle. wrist. which has a 360° rotating dial and scale with fluid indicator can be used for flexion and extension. elbow.

Bubble or fluid Inclinometers .

Electrogoniometers .


Active ranges of motion of the larger joints JOINT Shoulder ACTION Flexion Extension Abduction Internal rotation External rotation Flexion Pronation Supination Flexion Extension Radial deviation Ulnar deviation Flexion Extension Abduction Adduction Internal rotation External rotation Flexion Plantarflexion Dorsiflexion Inversion Eversion DEGREES OF MOTION 0-180 0-40 0-180 0-80 0-90 0-150 0-80 0-80 0-60 0-60 0-20 0-30 0-100 0-30 0-40 0-20 0-40 0-50 0-150 0-40 0-20 0-30 0-20 Elbow Forearm Wrist Hip Knee Ankle Foot .

PIP: 100-115. MCP: 50-55. IP: 0-5 30 60-70 .Active range of motion norms for the hand and fingers Motion Degrees Finger flexion Finger extension Finger abduction Finger adduction Thumb flexion Thumb extension Thumb adduction Thumb abduction MCP:85-90. PIP: 0. DIP: 80-90 MCP:30-45. IP: 85-90 MCP: 0. DIP: 20 20-30 0 CMC: 45-50.

60º Toe extension Great toe: MTP. 40º. 70º. IP. 30 . 45º.Normal ranges of motion for the toes Motion Normal Range (Degrees) Toe flexion Great toe: MTP. 35º. 40º. DIP. 90º Lateral four toes: MTP. DIP. IP. 0º Lateral four toes: MTP. 0º. PIP. PIP.

Goniometric procedure • Explain/demonstrate procedure • Position and drape appropriately • Observe or measure uninvolved and AROM first • Make visual estimation of motion • Ensure proximal stabilization • PROM with identification of end feel • Landmark identification through palpation • Align measurement device in neutral or zero position • Measure end range position • Document findings and compare to “normals” or uninvolved .

Goniometric principles 1.Positioning 2.Stabilization .Device allignment 3.

END FEELS • When assessing passive movements. . the examiner should apply overpressure at the end of the ROM to determine the quality of the "end-feel". The sensation that is felt in the joint as it reaches the end of the ROM. • A proper evaluation of the end feel can help determine a prognosis for the condition and learn the severity or stage of the problem.

End Feel • Normal and • Abnormal .

End feels Normal • Bone-to-bone • Soft tissue approximation • Tissue stretch • • • • • • • Abnormal Early muscle spasm Latemuscle spasm Hard capsule Soft capsule Bone to bene Empty Springy block .

there is a feeling of elastic resistance. • Soft tissue approximation Knee flexion This is a yielding compression that stops further movement. Shoulder ER finger extension. • Tissue stretch Ankle dorsiflexion.Normal Example • Bone-to-bone Elbow extension This is a "Hard" unyielding sensation that is painless. Towards the end of the ROM. . This is a hard or firm (springy) type of movement with a slight give.

Late muscle spasm Spasm caused by instability As above. but occurs at or near then of the ROM. Early muscle spasm occurs early in the ROM. with a sudden arrest of movement often accompanied by pain. The end feel is sudden and hard. It is caused by instability and the resulting irritability caused by movement. . Both types of muscle spasm are the result of the subconscious efforts of the body to protect the injured join or structure. almost as movement starts.Abnormal Early muscle spasm Example Acute protective spasm associated with inflammation This end feel is invoked by movement. As is the Apprehension Test for Shoulders.

chronic conditions. boggy end feel. . but it does not occur where one would expect. soft tissue oedema . Hard capsule Soft capsule Synovitis. Is often found in acute conditions. This is similar to "normal" but with a restricted ROM. Hard capsule end feel has a 'thick" quality to it. It has a soft. friction free movement. This end feel is similar to Tissue stretch. with stiffness occurring early in the range and increasing until the end of range. Limitation comes abruptly after a smooth.Frozen shoulder.

Usually occurs in joints with a meniscus. Empty Acute subacromial bursitis This end feel is detected when considerable pain is produced by movement. Springy block Meniscus tear This is similar to a tissue stretch. The movement is stopped by pain with no real mechanical resistance. but occurs unexpectedly. . and usually indicates an internal derangement.Bone-to-bone Osteophyte formation The abnormal bone-to-bone end feel comes well before the n normal end of ROM. There is a "rebound" effect.

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