APA STYLE

APA STYLE

rules or guidelines observed to ensure clear, consistent presentation of the printed word concerns uniform use of punctuations and abbreviations, construction of tables, selection of headings and citation of references and

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IN MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
Paper • 8 ½ X 11, heavy white bond paper 2. Typeface • 12-pt Times New Roman • 12-pt Courier New • 12-pt Sans Serif
1.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IN MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION
3.

Spacing
• •

double space; single space for table titles and headings, figure captions, references, footnotes and long quotations. Triple- or quadruplespacing after chapter titles, before major subheadings, before footnotes, and before and after tables in the

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IN MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION 4. bottom. except the artwork for figure and major chapters preliminary pages usually carry lowercase roman numerals Introduction (Chapter I) – Arabic numerals page numbers continue throughout the appendix 5. and right margins number all pages. Margins • 1 ½ “ left margin. Pagination • • • • . 1” top.

Figures. • • Tables.GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IN MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION 6. and Footnotes short tables may appear on a page with some text long tables and each figure are placed on a separate page immediately after the page on which the table or figure is first mentioned .

maximum size – 14 pt First line of every paragraph and the first line of every footnote Bibliography has a hanging indent format (first line is set flush left and the subsequent lines are  Paragraphs and Indentations • • . figure captions are typed below.GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IN MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION  Figures and figure captions • Figure number is italics. capitalize only the first word and any proper nouns. text of the caption is not italicized. Minimum size – 8 pt.

Italicized.GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IN MANUSCRIPT PREPARATION 7. Uppercase and Lowercase letters Headings CENTERED UPPERCASE HEADING Flush Left. paragraph . uppercase only the first word and proper noun. Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading Indented. 8. italicized.

. 10) No periods for abbreviations of state names (NY. p. latin abbreviations (a. abbreviation for United States when used as an adjective (U... NC). acronyms (APA. WB.. IQ). 3rd ed. A. cf. Santos).m. vs. 1.1) Period • EDITING STYLE used in initials of names (R.e.). NH. Navy). i. and metric and nonmetric • . and reference abbreviations (Vol.S.

Ex. . Bacoor. the 13th President of the Philippines. and Reyes (2005) . . if removed would leave the grammatical structure and meaning of the sentence intact. Ex-President Estrada. that is.EDITING STYLE 2) • Comma used between elements in a series of three or more items. or Indang In a study conducted by Sandoval. . • to set off a nonessential or nonrestrictive clause. Campos. before and and or Ex: Imus. was accused of plunder.

EDITING STYLE  Do not use comma  before an essential or restrictive clause Ex.  to separate parts of a measurement . These were the infrastructures that were especially built in tourism. The results contradicted Valerio’s findings and indicated that the effect was not significant.  between the two parts of a compound predicate Ex.

Imus. or .EDITING STYLE 3) Semicolon  to separate two independent clauses that are not joined by a conjunction Ex. The order of pilot testing was Silang. Bacoor. the sophomore incurred lower expenditures  to separate elements in a series that already contain commas Ex. The freshmen students incurred higher expenditures.

EDITING STYLE 4) Colon  used between a grammatically complete introductory clause (one that could stand as a sentence) and a final phrase or clause that illustrates. or amplifies the preceding thought. There are two sources of pollution: the point sources . Ex. extends.

Do not use a colon after an introduction that is not a complete sentence. Ex.EDITING STYLE If the clause following the colon is a complete sentence. The result was worth noting: The Philippines is the leading exporter of banana in the world. The formula is Y = a + bX . Ex. it begins with a capital letter.

The respondents—50 members.EDITING STYLE 5) Dash • to indicate only a sudden interruption in the continuity of a sentence. Ex. 40 nonmembers—were considered separately. .

EDITING STYLE 6) em dash (two hyphens) • to set off an element added to amplify from the main clause. no space before and after Ex.-are exempted. . Students--undergraduate and graduate.

Ex-President Estrada was accused as the “biggest jueteng lord” in the country. or as an invented or coined expression (no quotation marks after the initial usage) Ex.EDITING STYLE 7) Quotation Marks • to introduce a word or phrase used as an ironic comment.  to enclose quotations in text Ex. Dizon (2003) found that the “ill-gotten wealth” of ExPresident Marcos amounted to US$50 . as slang.

Ex..05) Do not use parenthesis to enclose material within other parenthesis • • • .EDITING STYLE 8) Parenthesis • to set off reference citations and page number in text Ex. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) to enclose statistical values. Reyes (2001) and Santos (2002) reported that. to introduce an abbreviation. Ex. (p < . (p.. 245). .

EDITING STYLE 9) Slash • to separate numerator from the denominator ( e. Reyes (1996/2000) • . X/Y) to cite a republished work in text .g. Ex.

Ex. . Boserup (1999) stressed that “man’s influence on the quality of the environment depends on the damage he does [alteration in a cultural system] and the effort devoted to undoing that damage”.EDITING STYLE 10) Brackets • used to enclose material inserted in a quotation by some person other than the original author.

Ex.EDITING STYLE • If a complete sentence ends with a parenthesis. the period is placed inside the closing parenthesis. • relative scarcity of land (in relation to If a complete sentence is enclosed in a parenthesis. (The Philippine agriculture is characterized . Ex. the period follows the closing parenthesis. The Philippine agriculture is characterized by a people).

The three principal thrusts are (a) institute a new program.EDITING STYLE 11) Seriation To show seriation within a paragraph or sentence use lowercase letters in parentheses. and (c) Increase saving rates. (b) strengthen support services. • Ex. .

Launch a massive rural infrastructure programs in the poorest regions.EDITING STYLE • To indicate seriation of separate paragraphs (e. . itemized recommendations or procedures) number each paragraph with an Arabic numeral followed by a period. Ex. Immediate land reform program in poorest areas. The following immediate recommendations are: 1. 2..g.

EDITING STYLE… CONT. 12. . Quotations  Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) should be incorporated into the text and enclosed by double quotation marks.

Ex. Propst (1996), “professional or registered nurses (RNs) nowadays lack in effective communication practices that could affect the recovery and well-being of the patients.”

 Long

quotations (40 or more words) – no quotation marks to enclose block quotations

 Ex.

Cruz (2003) found the following: Many developing countries have depended on export promotion as a road to economic development for many reasons . . .

13. Ellipsis points
 used

to indicate omitted material  Type three periods with a space before and after each period to indicate an omission within a sentence.  Type four periods to indicate an omission

 Ex. The core of Nursing is the nurse-client relationship wherein the nurse establishes and maintains the key to this relationship by using his/her knowledge and skills … contributes to the client’s health and well being. .

14) Spelling  Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary – standard spelling reference for APA Ex.appendixes. canceled. aging. appendix. matrix-matrices  .

follow up. (b) a hyphenated word. follow-up.15. Hyphenation  Compound words may take forms as (a) two separate words. “solid” word Ex. or (c) one unbroken.  .

 Permanent  compound compound words found in the dictionary .

randomly assigned) a compound including a comparative or superlative adjective   . Do not hyphenate  a compound including an adverb ending in –ly (e. widely used.g.

ad hoc. foreign phrases used as adjectives or adverbs  Ex. a priori. fed ad lib but ad-lib feeding  common fractions used as nouns  Ex. one third of the participants .

non. mid. un. equi. pro. inter. infra. bi. socio. post. re. mini. . semi. extra. intra. anti. sub. counter. over. multi. pre. macro. co. Prefixes  that do not require hyphens after.

g.compounds. whether adjectives or nouns  .g.g. a number (e. capitalized (e. post-1960). pro-Arroyo) all self. Prefixed words that require hyphens  an abbreviation (e. preWW II).

co-occur.words Ex. pre-existing. un-ionized words in which the prefix ends and the base word begins with the same vowel. re-form (form again). that could be misunderstood re-pair (pair again). . Ex.

 . but the hyphens are retained. when two or more compound modifiers have a common base. this base is sometimes omitted in all except the last modifier.

 Other  cases: student-centered approach but The approach was student centered t-test results but results from t tests  .

capitalize:  major words within the body of the paper (excluding conjunctions. Capitalization  In titles and headings. however. articles and short prepositions).16. .

 Ex  In her study. “Factors Affecting the Use of Therapeutic Communication”… .

item y. or hypotheses  Ex. law of supply and demand.g. life cycle hypothesis  nouns that precede a variable (e. models. theories. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Do not capitalize  names of laws. experiment b) .

 17) Italicizing Words  Use italics for titles of books. In the book . species. periodicals. “Introduction to Macroeconomics”  genera. and varieties introduction of a new. and microfilm publications  Ex.  .

g. the small and big groups designations not group size) letters used as statistical symbols or algebraic variables periodical volume numbers in reference lists anchors of a scale    . words that could be misread (e.

 Do not use italics for  foreign phrases and abbreviations common in English chemical terms trigonometric terms   .

APA permits the use of the following abbreviations that do not need explanation in  . Abbreviations  A term to be abbreviated.18. must be spelled out and followed immediately by its abbreviation in parentheses. on its first appearance.

.. Latin Abbreviations – used only in parenthetical material.for example namely etc. otherwise. – cf.that is viz. use the English translation – compare i. and so forth . e.g.. . -.e. . vs.

 Scientific Abbreviations  Use abbreviations and symbols for metric and nonmetric units of measurement that are accompanied by numeric values but not for the units of time .

without an apostrophe . but not italicized. Plurals  of Abbreviations add s alone.

19.05 . F(2.._ p_<_._n=100)_=_12. χ2(4.32._p_<_ .60.01._10)_=_8. Statistical and Mathematical Copy Ex.

20. NUMBERS EXPRESSED IN FIGURES  Use   figures to express all numbers 10 and above all numbers below 10 that are grouped for comparison with numbers 10 and above numbers that immediately precede a unit of measurement  .

or population size. dates. exact sums of money numbers that denote a specific place in a numbered series. and each number in a  . numbers that represent time. parts of books and tables. subsample. scores and points on a scale. ages. sample.

21. NUMBERS EXPRESSED IN WORDS  numbers below 10 that do not represent precise measurements and that are grouped for comparison with numbers below 10 any number that begins a sentence   .

22. Combining Figures and Words to Express Numbers   rounded large numbers back to back modifiers .

Decimal Fractions  Use a zero before the decimal point when numbers are less than 1 Do not use zero before a decimal fraction when the number cannot be greater than 1  .23.

 24) Commas in Numbers  Use commas between groups of three digits in most figures of 1.000 or more (except serial numbers. degrees of temperature. page numbers) .

EDITING STYLE 25. Plurals of Numbers  Add -s or -es alone to form the plurals of numbers whether expressed as figures or as words .

  .EDITING STYLE 26.g. mega. kilograms.g 2 m). otherwise. unless used at the beginning of the (e. Style for Metric Units  Use the metric symbol to express a metric unit when it appears with a numeric value (e. giga. spell out the unit in text use the metric symbol in column and sub headings of tables use lowercase letters when writing out full names of units. meters.

EDITING STYLE 27) Reference List  References cited in text must appear in the reference list. each entry in the reference list must be cited in text  The text citation and reference list entry are .

Volumes 4 vols.Part Trans. .) 2nd ed. d. .page (pages) ed. 3) Rev.) . . .Number Ed. ed.) .Technical Report n. . – Translators Tech. year of publication. .second edition .Volume (Vol.revised edition vols.EDITING STYLE  Entry contains the following: author. volume numbers (if journals or periodicals). (Eds. (pp.no date Suppl.Editor (Editors) Pt. . .Supplement  chap. title. Rep. – Edition Vol. . page numbers and publishing data Acceptable Abbreviations No. – Chapter p.

. . . . . a) As Tan (2000) points out .) Ex.EDITING STYLE 28) Reference Citation in Text  One Work by One Author –author-date method of citation (do not include Jr. . . c) In 2001. . .. . . (Ledesma. . . . . Ledesma found that . d) In a study on . 2001). and b) Both tenants and landless workers in nonrice corn lands number about . Ledesma also found . . Ledesma (2001) emphasized that .

EDITING STYLE  One Work by Multiple Authors  Two Authors – always cite both names every time the reference occurs in text .

Co. Use as subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter Sy et al. . . in subsequent citations. (2001) found. . include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. Use as first citation in text Sy. . . . and Dy (2001) found that . and the year if it is the first citation of the reference within a paragraph Ex. . Tan. four or five authors – cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.EDITING STYLE  Three. Omit year from subsequent citations after first citation within a paragraph .

. and Co (2003) and Sy. and Sy. Co et al. Tan.g. 2003. 2003. Tan. and Co. Tan. shorten to Sy et al.EDITING STYLE If two references with the same year shorten to the same form (e. and Dy. 2003) cite the surnames of the first authors to distinguish the two references as: Sy. Co. Sy. (2003) .

and shorten any remaining authors to et al. In the reference list. . and the year for the first and subsequent citations. provide the initials and surnames of the first six authors.EDITING STYLE  Six or more authors – cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.

Co. Lee. et al. Ex. Tan. Sy. Lim. cite them. Co. (2005) . and Ong (2005) Sy. Tan. et al.EDITING STYLE If two references with six or more authors shorten to the same form. respectively as: Sy. (2005) and Sy. Ong. Tan. Lim. Tan. Dy. and Cruz (2005) In text. Chan.

join the names by an ampersand (&) Ex. as has been shown . . . and reference list. tables and captions. Cruz and Chavez (2002) pointed that . . .EDITING STYLE In parenthetical material. . .

) are spelled out each time they appear in a text citation. PAGASA .. BFD). (Bureau of Forest Development [BFD]. etc. associations. the names of some group authors are spelled out in the first citation and abbreviated thereafter especially if the name is long and familiar or readily understandable.g. study groups. corporations.EDITING STYLE  Groups as Authors The names of groups (e. Ex.

or report Ex. . profitable for private traders (“The . brochure. . as stressed in the Agribusiness Bulletin (1999)  . book. . use “ ” around the title of an article or chapter. . and italicize the title of a periodical. .EDITING STYLE  Works with No Author or Anonymous Author  cite in text the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title) and the year.

cite materials such as court cases and legislation by the first few words of the reference and the year.. 2003) . For cases: Name v. Usigan. (Anonymous. Volume Source Page (Court Date) Onuh v.e.EDITING STYLE  Legal materials . 1995)  Anonymous . 345 (March 16. Supp.g. 234 F. Name.

Valerio (2004) and T. . even if the year of publication differs. C. A.EDITING STYLE  Authors With the Same Surname • include the first author’s initials in all text citations. A. Ex. . Cruz and Ilagan . Valerio (2005) also found. T. A.

give only the date. 1995. Ex.. (Cruz & Santos. give the author’s surnames once. 1998) .EDITING STYLE  Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses • arrange two or more works by the same authors (in the same order) by year of publication. for each subsequent work.

2001. 2000. Conclusion section. (Nakamura. chap. 2) . para. (Boserup & Kim. p. 2) (Kim. figure.EDITING STYLE  Specific Parts of a Source • indicate the page. or table at the appropriate point in text.205). Ex. 1995. chapter.

and the like. personal interviews. Ilagan. personal . T. memos.EDITING STYLE  Personal Communications • may be letters.. email. Santos (personal communication. J. cited in text only and not included in the reference list Ex. C.1995) ( F. April 3.

(2000) . T. A. Valerio. T. (1998) Valerio. A.EDITING STYLE 29) Order of References in the Reference List   Alphabetize names One-author entries are arranged by year of publication Ex.

& Ilagan. F.. T. Valerio. (2000) (2001) Valerio. T. A. C. A.EDITING STYLE  One-author entries precede multiple-author entries beginning with the same surname Ex. .

& Arroyo. M. Washington DC: John Wiley and Sons.. . myths. G. E. and future prospects (3rd ed.. F. (2000) Family mediation: Facts.EDITING STYLE 30) General Forms (Reference Style)  Book Marcos.).

EDITING STYLE  Group author (government agency) as publisher National Statistics Office. . How to fight obesity. (2003. April 20). Philippine Daily Inquirer. Sta. (2002). p. Manila  Daily newspaper Samson. C20. A. Mesa. L. Census of population and housing.

.. et al. Quarterly Journal of Economics. more than six authors Chong.EDITING STYLE  Journal article.. J. L. C.. L. J. S. N. migration and markets: Implications for upland development.. C. See. (2000). Lim. Sy. Dy... F. 1040–1049 . Tan. A. Population pressure. K. G. 55.

A. 44. 290.195 . W. G. 155 . June 10). M. 1216. & Capule. Social cognition and social perception. P. (2001).  Periodical published annually Romero. (1995. Annual Review of Psychology. Scenarios for the year 2005. G.EDITING STYLE  Magazine article Falcon. Science.

. & Alviar N. New York: John Wiley and Sons. L. Natural resource economics: Issues. (Eds. A. and policy. (1999).EDITING STYLE  Edited book Gonzales.). A. analysis.

London:Macmillan . R. 1-20). The new science encyclopedia (Vols.EDITING STYLE  Encyclopedia or dictionary Santos. (Eds. (1990).). D.

(1996). The expanded corn program in the Philippines. F. University of Bandung Press. Indonesia. . Asian Regional Maize Workshop (pp. In A. 120-130).).EDITING STYLE  Proceedings of symposia Minguez . Salgado (Ed. G. R.

Technical and institutional change in renewable resource development (with application for traditional fisheries).EDITING STYLE  Unpublished doctoral dissertation Cruz. D. Madison University of Wisconsin. . D. (1982). Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

 Newton. R.net. July 7). (2004.d). from http://www.gatech. 2004.EDITING STYLE  Article in an internet Environmental sustainability index. T. from http://www. (n. cc.environ/fcu/. . Retrieved August 24. In Business word. 2004. Ten top corporations in the world.corp. Retrieved October 10.

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