RLE 2-3.


Catuncan and Ceñidoza

A wave is a traveling disturbance. A wave carries energy from place to place.

1.one in which the disturbance occurs perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave. Examples: Radio waves Light waves Microwaves strings of instruments (guitars and banjos) . Transverse wave .

one in which the disturbance occurs parallel to the line of travel of the wave. Instead. the motion includes both transverse and longitudinal components. in a water wave the motion of the water particles is not strictly perpendicular or strictly parallel to the line along which the wave travels. For instance. Longitudinal wave . Example: sound waves Some waves are neither transverse nor longitudinal. since the water particles at the surface move on nearly circular paths. .

Catuncan and Ceñidoza .

F = cycles per second or Hertz (Hz) T = seconds (s) Equation: ƒ= 1/T . The transverse and longitudinal waves are called Periodic Waves because they consist of cycles or patterns that are produced over and over again by the source.

 Solution: ƒ= 1/ (0. then ten cycles pass the observer per second. one-tenth of a second to pass an observer.1s) ƒ = 10 cycle/s ƒ = 10 Hz .For instance.

while a train moves by at a constant speed.V = meters per seconds (m/s)  λ = meters (m)  T = time (s) Imagine waiting at a railroad crossing. The train consists of a long line of identical boxcars.  v= λ / T = f λ . This same equation applies for a wave and relates the speed of the wave to the wavelength λ and the period T. so the speed is v= λ /T. each of which has a length and requires time to pass.

9 x 106 Hz ( 91.9 MHz on the dial). A station broadcast an AM radio wave whose frequency is 1230 x 103 Hz (1230 kHz on the dial) and an FM radio wave whose frequency is 91.00 x 108 s/m.26m .AM and FM radio waves consisting of electric and magnetic disturbances traveling at a speed of 3.  Solution: AM ۸ = v/f = 3.00 x 108 m/s / 91.9 x 106 Hz = 3. Find the distance or length between each wave.00 x 108 m/s / 1230 x 103 Hz = 244m FM ۸ = v/f= 3.

Nature of Sound .

Nature of Sound .

Condensation and Rarefaction .

Frequency of a sound wave .

Frequency of a sound wave .

Frequency of a sound wave .

Frequency of a sound wave .

Pressure amplitude .

Other terms .


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SUBSTANCE SPEED (m/s) Gases Air (0oC) Air (20oC) Carbon Dioxide (0oC) Oxygen (0oC) Helium (0oC) Liquids Chloroform (20oC) Ethyl alcohol (20oC) Mercury (20oC) Fresh water (20oC) Seawater (20oC) 1004 1162 1450 1482 1522 331 343 259 316 965 Solids Copper Glass (Pyrex) Lead Steel 5010 5640 1960 5960 .

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The basic units 2 or watts/cm2 . The usual context is the measurement of sound intensity in the air at a listener's location. are watts/m .Sound intensity is defined as the sound power per unit area.

Many sound intensity measurements are made relative to a standard threshold of hearing intensity I0 : .

The most common approach to sound intensity measurement is to use the decibel scale: .

so that this threshold takes the value 0 decibels (0 dB).Decibels measure the ratio of a given intensity I to the threshold of hearing intensity . as distinct from an objective intensity measurement. To assess sound loudness. . the sensitivity of the ear must be factored in.

.Threshold of Hearing Sound level measurements in decibels are generally referenced to a standard threshold of hearing at 1000 Hz for the human ear which can be stated in terms of sound intensity.

and bel. 0dB to the threshold of pain. named after Alexander Graham Bell. meaning one-tenth.Decibel Measurement of loudness that ranges from the threshold of hearing. . The term decibel is actually two words: deci. about 140dB.

.Sound loudness Subjective term describing the strength of the ear's perception of a sound.


  . Unit of intensity of sound It can be measured with a soundlevel meter.D ECIBEL ( D B)  It is a measurement unit used when comparing two sound intensities.

I NTENSITY L EVEL Β It is a comparison of the intensity of one sound and the intensity of a reference sound. I₀ = 10-12 W/m2) . It is defined on a logarithmic scale as follows: β = 10 log (I/I₀) where I₀ is a reference intensity to which other intensities I are compared (for sound.

It has a dimensionless unit called decibel (dB)  . Intensity level is a unitless quantity because the units of I/I₀ cancel.

E XAMPLE  The sound in an average classroom has an intensity of 10 -7W/m2 = I (for sound. what is the new sound intensity level?    . I₀ = 10-12 W/m2) (a) Calculate the intensity level of that sound (b) if the sound intensity is doubled.

S OLUTION Β = 10 LOG (I/I ₀ )  (a) The ratio of the sound intensity I and the reference intensity I₀ is = 105 = β = 10 log 105 = 10(5) = 50dB .

3) = 53dB . THE RATIO OF I AND I ₀ BECOMES : 2X = X 105 =2 therefore: 10 log (2 X 105) = 10 (5.( B ) I F I IS DOUBLED .

. because doubling the intensity does not double the loudness. The relation between intensity and loudness is not a simple proportionality.

If you turn up the amplifier to produce a 91 dB level. Hearing tests shows that one-decibel change in the intensity level correspond to the smallest change in loudness that a listener with normal hearing can detect. you would just barely notice the change in loudness.  .F OR  EXAMPLE : You are in front of a stereo system that is producing an intensity level of 90 dB.

the new sound would be twice as loud as the original sound. . the intensity must be increased by more than a factor of two.dB. Experiment shows that if the intensity level increases by 1. To double the loudness of a sound.


 Named after Austrian Physicist CHRISTIAN DOPPLER DOPPLER EFFECT is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. .

  Doppler Ultrasound Gel – acts as conductor for sound waves to the patient’s skin .

 Next Generation Weather Rader   Based on radar waves Radar pulses are sent by the unit and waves reflect from the water droplets and return to the unit .

APPLICATIONS OF SOUND IN MEDICINE Stethoscopy and Ultrasonography .

Stethoscopy  Used to listen to the internal sounds of the human body since the early 19th century  Involves reverberation of sounds .




an ultrasound-based diagnostic imaging technique  used for visualizing subcutaneous body structures  "ultrasound" applies to all acoustic energy (longitudinal, mechanical wave) with a frequency above 20 kHz

Ultrasound and pregnancy

Ultrasound and kidney stones

Ultrasound in dental hygiene .

Ultrasound and tumor removal by CUSA .

Ultrasound and tumor removal by heating .

Ultrasound and movement (The Doppler Effect) .

Ultrasound and cataract treatment .

Ultrasound and bone healing .

Ultrasound and the blood-brain barrier .


it is not equally sensitive to all frequencies  .Sound power (Pac) per unit area (A)  Sound frequency .Sound cycles per second  Although the ear is capable of detecting sound intensities as small as  1 x 10 -12 W/m2 .Sound Intensity .


 Threshold of hearing . and becomes less sensitive at higher and lower frequencies  .lowest curve. most quiet audible tone  The ear is most sensitive in the range of about 1-5 kHz.Each curve is a constant loudness curve because it shows the sound intensity level needed at each frequency to make the sound appear to have the same loudness.

. These constant loudness curves become flatter as the loudness increases which indicates that the ear is equally sensitive to all frequencies when the sound is loud.

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