# Statistical Quality Control

7 Basic Tools for Quality Improvement
What are 7 basic Tools ? A basic technique that is used in solving problems concerning Quality,costs and production problems that arise in the workplace. The tools are : 1. Pareto Diagrams 2. Cause and effect Diagram 3.Flow charts and Graphs 4. Check sheets 5. Histograms 6.Control Charts 7.Scatter Diagrams. 1. PARETO DIAGRAMS - Focus on key problems
1. Decide which problem

2. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM - Find and cure causes
1. Select the

you want to know more about. 2. Choose the causes or problems that will be monitored, compared or ranked. 3. Choose the most meaningful unit of measurement. 4. Choose the period for study. 5. Gather the necessary data on each problem. 6. Compare the relative frequency or cost of each problem category. 7. List the problem categories on the horizontal line and frequency on vertical line. 8. Draw the cumulative percentage Aziz Alam line showing the portions of the total Pakistan Institute of Quality that each problem category represents.
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most appropriate cause and effect format. 2. Generate the cause needed to build a cause and effect diagram. 3. Construct the cause and effect diagram. 4. Make sure every one agrees on the problem statement. 5. Include as much information as possible. 6. Interpret or test for Root cause.

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Control

Statistical Quality Control

7 Basic Tools for Quality Improvement
Flow Chart An illustration of the actual sequence of Processes that make the work.It can be used to describe the current work flow, whether simple or complex. GRAPHS One of the most appealing and convincing ways in which Statistical data may be presented is through GRAPHS. It gives a bird’s eye view of a given set of numerical data. Graphs facilitate comparison and reveal trends. 3A. GRAPHS
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3. FLOW CHART 1. When you create a flow chart, use the following symbols. Box -Activities Circle - Input /Output
Diamond - Decision Arrow -Direction of Flow 2. Gather a group of people. who represent the various activities performed. 3. Decide where the work begins and ends. 4. List main activities, Inputs/Outputs and decision points. 5. Create separate flow chart to clarify complex activities.
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1. Every Graph should have a suitable Title. 2. Proper proportion between length and breadth generally 1.5 : 1 to be kept. 3.Scale should be in multiples of 5,10,20 etc. Common Types of Graphs. 1. Bar Graph - used to show quantities of different characteristics relative to each other. 2. Pie chart - Used to shares of different characteristics. 3. Line Graph - used to show changes w.r.t.Time.

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Statistical Quality Control

7 Basic Tools for Quality Improvement
CHECK SHEETS It is used to systematically record and compile data from historical sources, or observations as they happen, so that patterns and trends can be clearly detected and shown. HISTOGRAMS . Used to summarize data from a process that has been collected over a period of time, and graphiccally present its frequency distribution in bar form.

4 . CHECK SHEETS - Counting &accumulating data 1. Agree on definition of the events or conditions being observed. 2. Decide who will collect data, over what period, and from what sources. 3. Design a Check Sheet form that is clear,complete and easy to use. 4. Collect the data consistently and accurately.

5. HISTOGRAM - Process Centering, Spread and Shape
1. Decide on process
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Check Sheet for Variables
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measure. 2. Gather data. 3. Prepare a frequency table from the data. 4.Draw a Histogram from the frequency table. X-axis - scale related to variable. Y-axis - frequency scale. 5. Interpret the Histogram a) Centering requirements b) Variation c) Shape d) Process Capability

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Statistical Quality Control

7 Basic Tools for Quality Improvement
CONTROL CHARTS Control charts are used to monitor, control and improve process performances over time by studying variations and its source. They provide common language for discussing process performance. 6. CONTROL CHARTS - Recognizing sources of variations 1.Select the process to be charted. 2.Determine sampling method and plan. 3. Initiate data collection. 4. Calculate the appropriate statistics. If you have attribute data, use attribute data table for control limits, and if the data is variable ,use table for variable data. 5. Construct the control charts. 6. Draw solid horizontal line for process average and dashed lines for upper and lower control limits. 7. Analyze the data relative to the control limits. X-bar chart .SCATTER DIAGRAM These diagrams are used to study and identify the possible relationship between the changes observed in two different sets of variables.

7. SCATTER DIAGRAM - Measuring relationships between variables.

Sample R - chart

1. Collect 50 -100 paired samples of data that you think may be related and construct a data sheet. UCL 2. Draw the horizontal (x-axis) CL and vertical (y-axis) lines of the diagram. 3. Plot the data on the diagram. LCL 4. Interpret the data. 5. The following five correlation may exist : I) Positive Correlation ii) Possible positive Correlation. iii) No Correlation. iv) Possible negative Correlation. V) Negative Correlation.

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