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# TheGlobal Positioning

System
()GPS

Abdallah M.
Samy
Entomology Department
Faculty of science
Ain Shams University
?What is GPS
Global Navigation Satellite System developed by US
Department of defense.
 uses a constellation of between 24 and 32 Medium Earth
Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals, that
enable GPS receivers to determine their current location, the
time, and their velocity.
Satellite Microwave
signal
Location
Time
Velocity
Sometimes;
Environmen
tal
conditions
Why GPS is a useful tool in
?the study of Ecology
GPS has become a widely used aid to
useful tool for map-making, land surveying,
commerce, scientific uses, and hobbies such as
geocaching.
the precise time reference is used in many
applications including scientific study of
earthquakes, and synchronization of
telecommunications networks.
 Traffic signal timing
?calculates its position
A GPS receiver calculates its position by carefully timing the
signals sent by the GPS satellites high above the Earth.

## Each satellite continually transmits messages containing the

time the message was sent, precise orbital information )the
ephemeris), and the general system health and rough orbits of
all GPS satellites )the almanac).

## The receiver measures the transit time of each message and

computes the distance to each satellite.

## Geometric trilateration is used to combine these distances

with the location of the satellites to determine the receiver's
location.

## The position is displayed, perhaps with a moving map display

or latitude and longitude; elevation information may be
included. Many GPS units also show derived information such
as direction and speed, calculated from position changes.
What is the difference
between the two pictures )A
?) versusB
How many satellite is
required for positioning GPS
Three satellites are enough to solve
for position, since space has three
dimensions.
But a very small clock error times the
very large speed of light the speed at
which satellite signals propagate; results
in a large positional error.
The receiver uses a fourth satellite to
solve for x, y, z, and t which is used to
A visual example of the GPS constellation
in motion with the Earth rotating. Notice
how the number ofsatellites in view
from a given point on the Earth's surface,
in this example at 45°N, changes with
may have an error….
?Why
Ionosphere and troposphere delays — The
satellite signal slows as it passes through the
atmosphere. The GPS system uses a built-in model
that calculates an average amount of delay to
partially correct for this type of error.

## Signal multipath — This occurs when the GPS

signal is reflected off objects such as tall buildings or
large rock surfaces before it reaches the receiver.
This increases the travel time of the signal, thereby
causing errors.
may have an error….
(.Why? (Cont
is not as accurate as the atomic clocks onboard the
GPS satellites. Therefore, it may have very slight
timing errors.
Orbital errors — Also known as ephemeris errors,
these are inaccuracies of the satellite's reported
location.
Number of satellites visible — The more satellites
a GPS receiver can "see," the better the accuracy.
Buildings, terrain, electronic interference, or
sometimes even dense foliage can block signal
reception, causing position errors or possibly no
may have an error….
(.Why? (Cont
Satellite geometry/shading — This refers to the
relative position of the satellites at any given time.
Ideal satellite geometry exists when the satellites
are located at wide angles relative to each other.
Poor geometry results when the satellites are
located in a line or in a tight grouping.
Intentional degradation of the satellite signal —
Selective Availability )SA) is an intentional
degradation of the signal once imposed by the
U.S. Department of Defense. SA was intended to
prevent military adversaries from using the highly
accurate GPS signals. The government turned off
Practical instruction