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Pressure Hydrostatic Pressure

Fluids are substances that can flow,, such as

liquids and gases, and even a few solids. In Physics B, we will limit our discussion of fluids to substances that can easily flow, such as liquids and gases.

Review: Density
r = m/V
m: mass (kg) V: volume (m3)

since w=mg

r (rho): density (kg/m3)

wfluid= Vg

It is useful to know the density of water 1000 kg/m3 When we want to determine if it is likely that

something will sink in water, it is useful to compare the density of a substance to the density of water. We call this comparison Specific Gravity.
For example lead has a density of 11,000 kg/m3 therefore

it has a specific gravity of 11

P = F/A P: pressure (Pa) F: force (N) Balloon A: area (m2) Pressure unit: Pascal ( 1 Pa = 1 N//m2) !atm = 760mm of Hg = 1x105 Pa NOTE Hg = 13.5 H O The force on a surface caused by pressure is always normal (or perpendicular) to the surface. This means that the pressure of a fluid is exerted in all directions, and is perpendicular to the surface at every location.


Sample Problem
Calculate the net force on an airplane window if

cabin pressure is 90% of the pressure at sea level, and the external pressure is only 50% of that at sea level. Assume the window is 0.43 m tall and 0.30 m wide.

Atmospheric Pressure
Atmospheric pressure

is normally about 100,000 Pascals. Differences in atmospheric pressure cause winds to blow.

Low atmospheric

pressure inside a hurricanes eye contributes to the severe winds and the development of the storm surge.

The Pressure of a Liquid

P = gh P: pressure (Pa) : density (kg/m3) g: acceleration constant (9.8 m/s2) h: height of liquid column (m) This type of pressure is often called gauge


If the liquid is water, this is referred to as

hydrostatic pressure.

Absolute Pressure
Absolute pressure is obtained by adding the

atmospheric pressure to the hydrostatic pressure. Pabs = Patm + gh

Hydrostatic Pressure in Dam Design 115 miles to the end of lake Mead
The depth of Lake

Mead at the Hoover Dam is 600ft. What is the hydrostatic pressure and what is the absolute pressure at the base of the dam?

Hoover Dam

Hydrostatic Pressure in Levee Design

Hurricane Katrina, August 2005

A hurricanes storm surge can overtop levees, but a bigger problem can be increasing the hydrostatic pressure at the base of the levee.

Floating is a type of equilibrium

An upward force counteracts the

force of gravity for these objects. This upward force is called the buoyant force.


Archimedes Principle
Archimedes Principle: a body immersed in a fluid

is buoyed up by a force that is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.

The Buoyant Force

Fbuoy = Vg Fbuoy: the buoyant force exerted on a submerged or partially submerged object. V: the volume of displaced liquid. : the density of the displaced liquid. When an object floats, the upward buoyant force

equals the downward pull of gravity. The buoyant force can float very heavy objects, and acts upon objects in the water whether they are floating, submerged, or even sitting on the bottom.

Buoyant force on submerged object

A sharks body is not neutrally buoyant, and so a

shark must swim continuously or he will sink deeper.

Fbouy = Vg


Buoyant force on submerged object

SCUBA divers use a buoyancy control system to

maintain neutral buoyancy (equilibrium!).



Buoyant force on submerged object

If the diver wants to rise, he inflates his vest,

which increases the amount of water he displaces, and he accelerates upward.



Buoyant force Buoyant force on floating object



If the object floats on the surface, we know for a

fact Fbuoy = mg! The volume of displaced water equals the volume of the submerged portion of the ship.

Sample problem
Assume a wooden raft has 80.0% of the density

of water. The dimensions of the raft are 6.0 m long by 3.0 m wide by 0.10 m tall. How much of the raft rises above the level of the water when it floats?

Buoyant Force
The buoyant force can be extremely strong.
Incredibly massive objects can float, even when

they are not intended to

St. Bernard Parish after Hurricane Katrina

St. Bernard Parish after Hurricane Katrina

When a Fluid Flows

mass is conserved..
Provided there are no inlets our outlets in a

stream of flowing fluid, the same mass per unit time must flow everywhere in the stream. ml

Fluid Flow Continuity

The volume per unit time of a liquid flowing in

a pipe is constant throughout the pipe.

We can say this because liquids are not

compressible, so mass conservation is also volume conservation for a liquid.

Fluid Flow Continuity

V = Avt V: volume of fluid (m3) A: cross sectional areas at a point in the pipe (m2) v: speed of fluid flow at a point in the pipe (m/s) t: time (s)

Fluid Flow Continuity

A 1v 1 = A2v 2 A1, A2: cross sectional areas at points 1 and 2 v1, v2: speed of fluid flow at points 1 and 2

Sample problem
A pipe of diameter 6.0 cm has fluid flowing through

it at 1.6 m/s. How fast is the fluid flowing in an area of the pipe in which the diameter is 3.0 cm? How much water per second flows through the pipe?

Sample problem
The water in a canal flows 0.10 m/s where the

canal is 12 m deep and 10 m across. If the depth of the canal is reduced to 6.5 meters at an area where the canal narrows to 5.0 m, how fast will the water be moving through this narrower region?

What will happen to the water in an open

waterway if it cannot flow as fast as it wants to through a narrow region in a channel?

Natural Waterways
Flash flooding

can be explained by fluid flow continuity.

Fluid Flow Continuity in Waterways

Mississippi River Gulf Outlet levees are overtopped by Katrinas storm surge.
A hurricanes storm surge can be amplified by waterways that become narrower or shallower as they move inland.

Bernoullis Theorem
The sum of the pressure, the potential energy per

unit volume, and the kinetic energy per unit volume at any one location in the fluid is equal to the sum of the pressure, the potential energy per unit volume, and the kinetic energy per unit volume at any other location in the fluid for a non-viscous incompressible fluid in streamline flow. All other considerations being equal, when fluid moves faster, the pressure drops.

Bernoullis Theorem
P + g h + v2 = Constant P : pressure (Pa) : density of fluid (kg/m3) g: gravitational acceleration constant (9.8 m/s2) h: height above lowest point (m) v: speed of fluid flow at a point in the pipe (m/s)

Sample Problem
Knowiing what you

know about Bernouillis principle, design an airplane wing that you think will keep an airplane aloft. Draw a cross section of the wing.


Windtunnel Fluid flow researcher at work in virtual windtunnel providing interactive 3dimensional environment. Date taken: 1992

Bernoullis Principle and Hurricanes

In a hurricane or tornado, the high winds traveling

across the roof of a building can actually lift the roof off the building. 4923387081294&q=Hurricane+Roof&hl=en