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Essential Question:

“Man of the “King”

People”? OR Andrew?
Voting Requirements in the Early 19c
Voter Turnout: 1820 - 1860
Why Increased Democratization?
 White male suffrage increased
 Voters chose their state’s slate of
Presidential electors.
 Spoils system.
 Rise of Third Parties.
 Popular campaigning (parades,
rallies, floats, etc.)
 Two-party system returned in the
1832 election:
• Dem-Reps  Natl. Reps. Democrats
• Whigs  Republicans (1854)
Expanding Electorate
 Political equality grows more
than economic equality for
white males.
 Until 1820s, relatively few
white males could vote.
– Most states restricted vote to
property owners or taxpayers
or both. Lower classes shut
Expanding Electorate
– Changes first came in west (now
Midwest, OH, etc.) which were required
to guarantee white male suffrage to join
the union. Older states followed to try
and keep people from moving west.
– Number of voters grew faster than
population growth.
• 1800: Presidential electors chosen by state
legislatures in 10 states; by people in only 6.
• 1828: Electors chosen by people in all states
but one (SC).
• 1824: Fewer than 27% adult white males
vote. 1828: 58%. 1840: 80%.
First Known Painting
of Jackson, 1815
General Jackson During the
Seminole Wars
The “Common Man’s”
Presidential Candidate
Election of 1824
• More open political system
• By 1824, most states allow popular
vote (not state legislatures) to pick
• Four regional candidates challenge
candidate of congressional caucus
• Democratic-Republicans split; no
one earns majority; House picks
Adams as president
Jackson’s Opponents in 1824

Henry Clay John C.

[KY] Calhoun [SC]

John Quincy
Adams [MA]
William H.
Crawford [GA]
Election of 1824
New England Candidate
John Quincy Adams
• Son of 2nd President
• Extensive history in govt.
– Worked as secretary to American
delegation in Europe at age of 14.
– Elected to Senate in 1802.
– Broke w/ his father to become a
– Served as a negotiator to end the War of
– Secretary of State to President Monroe.
• This had become the pathway to the
Election of 1824
Southern Candidates
• William Crawford- Georgia
– Served as Sec. of Treasury under
Presidents Madison and Monroe.
– Fiscal conservative/Jeffersonian on
• John C. Calhoun- S. Carolina
– Sec. of War
– Not yet the bitter Southern sectionalist
and slavery apologist he will become.
– Bitter rival of Crawford because the Sec.
of Treasury had cut his budget.
Election of 1824
Western Candidates
• Henry Clay- Kentucky
– The “Great Compromiser”
– American System: internal
improvements, protective tariffs,
strengthen the ‘bonds of union’
• Andrew Jackson- Tennessee
– “Hero of New Orleans”
– Controversy regarding his actions in
Spanish Florida
– Jeffersonian strict constructionist; anti-
debt; low taxes and spending.
Results of the 1824 Election
Election of 1824
Jackson did much better than the
political “pros” expected
• Won Penn., NJ, NC, Ill., Ind., and all
of the “new states” of the southwest.
– All of these wins, except NJ, were
• Finished a strong second in several
states he did not win.
• Outside of New England, Jackson the
clear choice of a large majority.
But Jackson did not have the majority
needed for an electoral college
The Election of 1824:

Candidate Popular Vote Vote

Andrew 43% 99*


J.Q. Adams 31% 32

William 13% 41
Henry Clay 13% 37
*A plurality, but not the majority required by the Constitution.
Election of 1824
When no electoral college majority
exists, matter decided in the House.
• Top 3 contend.
– #4 Clay is out. But…
• He’s the Speaker of the House-
“King Maker.”
– Clay dislikes Adams.
– Crawford has suffered a massive
– Hates Jackson- ‘military
chieftain’, ‘backwoods Napoleon’
Election of 1824
The “Corrupt Bargain” (?)
• What choice did Clay really have? He felt
his only option was to support Adams.
• Met w/ Adams on January 9, 1825.
– Did they make a deal?
• Clay had already made his position known
to close associates in December of 1824-
weeks before his meeting with Adams.
• Clay maneuvered states that had
supported him in the election to throw
their support to Adams- even though
Jackson was the clear 2nd choice in these
Election of 1824
The “Corrupt Bargain” (?)
• Jackson and his supporters cry “Foul!”
• A pro-Jackson newspaper speculated (lied?)
in late December that a deal between Adams
and Clay had been struck for Clay to
support Adams in return for the Sec. of State
position. Clay denies this.
• But, after the election, the position was
offered and Clay accepted.
– Terrible mistake by Adams and Clay.
• Jackson and supporters believe the election
was stolen. They will stew and plot their
electoral revenge for 1828.
Election of 1828
• Jackson aggressively seeks what he believes
was stolen from him 4 years earlier.
– Keeps w/ etiquette of not campaigning himself,
but works actively behind the scenes.
• “Jackson and Reform” the theme
– No more aristocratic domination
• Supports amendment to prevent members of Congress
from taking executive position for 2 yrs.
– Jeffersonianism
– Moderate on tariffs
– Skeptical of ‘internal improvements’
– Indian removal
Election of 1828
A modern style campaign
• Central campaign committee- based at ‘The
Hermitage’- Jackson’s home.
• State committees- sent intelligence to central
comm., and received information for
• Local committees- organized events
(parades, rallies, etc.). Whip up enthusiasm.
– Often called “Hickory Clubs”
• Fundraising- national and local levels-
included ‘$5 a plate public banquets’ and
other ticketed events.
Election of 1828
A very nasty campaign
• Jackson campaign: Claimed Adams
– A ‘secret aristocrat’
– Had taken an innocent American girl
to give to the Russian tsar as a mistress
– Had stolen the office in 1824- Corrupt
• Adams campaign: Claimed Jackson
– Was a ‘frontier lowlife’, lawless
– Had acted like a Napoleon as a
military leader.
– Had a bigamist for a wife
Rachel Jackson

Final Divorce Decree

Election of 1828
• Balloting begins in September.
Varied laws in states draw
process out.
• Adams, as expected, wins New
• Jackson wins everywhere else.
– 68% of the electoral vote
– 56% of the popular vote
Voter Turnout
1824 v. 1828
1828 Election Results
Why Jackson Wins: The Center of
the US population moves West.
Why Jackson Wins: Jackson’s
Faith in the “Common Man”
 Intense distrust of Eastern
“establishment,” monopolies,
& special privilege.
 His heart & soul was with the
“plain folk.”
 Belief that the common man
was capable of uncommon
Why Jackson Wins: The New
“Jackson Coalition”
 The Planter Elite in the
 People on the Frontier
 State Politicians – spoils
 Immigrants in the cities.
Election of 1828
• Victory turns to sadness
– In December of 1828, Rachel
Jackson dies after suffering 5
days of violent heart seizures.
– Jackson blames the scandalous
attacks on Rachel during the
•Never forgives his political
Jackson in Mourning for His
Jackson: “President of the
common man”
 Jackson not the democratic philosopher
Jefferson was.
– His theory simple: equal protection and
equal benefits to white citizens. No class
 Spoils System:
– To the victor goes the spoils.
– Winner removes supporters of opponents
and replaces with their supporters.
– Jackson actually only removed no more
than 1/5th of office holders. But his
embrace of spoils system set precedent for
The Reign of “King Mob”
Andrew Jackson as President
The “Peggy Eaton Affair”
Nullification crisis
 Jackson believed in reducing
federal govt., but also in
protecting power of presidency
and preserving the union. So
while trying to reduce economic
role of fed govt., was also
willing to assert supremacy of
 Tariff question- South Carolina
blamed tariffs for their
economic problems.
Nullification crisis
 John C. Calhoun- VP under Jackson, but
a leader of SC nullification.
 Drew upon the VA and KY resolves that
were response to the Alien and Sedition
 Nullification argument
– Fed govt. a creation of the states, which
means states are the final arbiters of
constitutionality of federal laws.
– If a state concluded that Congress had
passed an unconstitutional law, then it
could hold a special convention and
declare the federal law null and void
within the state.
Nullification crisis
 1832, SC nullifies tariffs of 1828 and
– Forbade collection of duties within
the state.
 Jackson argues that nullification is
– Proposes and Congress passes a force
bill- president authorized to use
military force to see that acts of
Congress are obeyed.
 No other states join Calhoun and SC
in protest. Leaves SC isolated.
Nullification crisis
 Henry Clay- compromise.
– Tariff gradually lowered so
by 1842 it would be at 1816
– Compromise and tariff bill
passed on same day.
– SC in final hurrah- nullifies
force bill.
The Webster-Hayne

Sen. Daniel Sen. Robert

Webster Hayne
[MA] [SC]
Liberty and Union, now and
forever, one and inseparable.

Our Federal Union—it must be
The Union, next to our liberty,
most dear.
Indian Removal
 Jackson’s Goal?
 1830  Indian Removal Act
 Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831)
“domestic dependent nation”
 Jackson:
“John Marshall has made his
decision, now let him enforce
Indian removal
 Jackson’s attitude towards natives always
negative. Not too different from most
– 18th C. attitude: Noble savages. Possible to
civilize. Inherent dignity.
– 19th C. attitude: Just savages. Not possible to
civilize. Whites should not be expected to live
near savages.
• Whites wanted land of natives.
• Whites feared contact would bring violence.
• Whites angry that some tribes harbored
escaped slaves.
• Independent natives a challenge to white
Indian removal
 Most problematic in 1830s were
tribes in South.
– “5 civilized tribes”: Cherokee, Creek,
Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw.
– Fed govt. the Constitutional authority
to deal with natives, not states. But
states (GA, AL, Miss.) grew impatient.
• To allow Native sovereignty may have
been a violation of Art. IV, Sec. 3 of Const.:
“no new State shall be formed or erected
within the jurisdiction of any other
Indian removal
 Congress passed removal act in 1830.
- Jackson referred to this removal as
“voluntary”, but it was not.
- He made clear that the federal govt. would no
longer protect natives from the states.
– appropriated money to finance fed
negotiations to relocate the tribes.
• Not enough money.
• It cost more that $5M to expel just the Choctaws-
which was $2M more than Jackson said required for
all natives.
– Even this wasn’t enough.
– The vote on the Removal Act was very
sectional: Slave states 61-15 in favor; Free
states 82-41 opposed.
• W/o the 3/5 compromise, the bill would not have
Indian removal
• Cherokee appealed GA activities to
Sup. Ct. Won.
• Jackson disregarded the decision.
• “John Marshall has made his decision.
Now let him enforce it.”
• 1835 fed govt. made a treaty with a
minority faction of Cherokee. Great
majority of Cherokee did not recognize
treaty as legitimate. Jackson sent
troops to force them out.
– Army of 7000 under Winfield Scott.
Indian removal
 Trail of Tears
– Thousands died. Perhaps
– Moved to Indian Territory (OK).
• Fed govt. thought this was far
• Didn’t think whites would come
into contact with them across the
Mississippi River.
• Thought OK was undesirable land
and on the eastern edge of the
Great American Desert.
The Cherokee
Nation 1820
Indian Removal
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
Jackson’s Professed “Love” for
Native Americans
Jackson’s Use of
Federal Power

1830  Maysville Road project
in KY [state of his
political rival, Henry
Opposition to the 2nd
“Soft” “Hard”
(paper) $ (specie) $

 state bankers felt  felt that coin was

it restrained their the only safe
banks from issuing currency.
bank notes freely.  didn’t like any bank
 supported rapid that issued bank
economic growth notes.
& speculation.  suspicious of
expansion &
The “Monster” Is Destroyed!
 “Pet Banks”?
 1832  Jackson vetoed the
extension of the 2nd
National Bank of the
United States.
 1836  the charter expired.
 1841  the bank went
Jackson v. the Bank
 Jackson was for union and the
presidency, but consistently
against concentrating power in
the hands of the fed govt or the
“aristocrats” he believed had
controlled it.
 Vetoed congressional measure to
build Maysville Rd. in KY.
Unconstitutional in his view, and
unwise because it would commit
US financially to the matter.
Jackson v. the Bank
 National Bank
– Place where fed govt deposited its
– Govt owned 1/5th of the BUS
– BUS did a lot of business-
• Making loans
• Issued bank notes which was a
dependable means of currency.
• It’s capital was more than 2x the total
annual expenditure of US govt.
• By controlling credit, it could
effectively control US economy.
Jackson v. the Bank
 Jackson wanted to destroy
the bank
– He was a hard money man-
did not like paper currency
and credit speculation.
– He believed- on Jeffersonian
grounds- that BUS was
– Made it clear he would not
support recharter of the bank
in 1836.
Jackson v. the Bank
 BUS run by Nicholas Biddle
– Philadelphia aristocrat
– Gave financial favors to people
in effort to save the BUS.
• Lots of loans to Daniel Webster.
Webster also named a counsel and
director of the Boston branch.
– Conflict of interest
• Confirms Jackson’s suspicions
about elite.
The National Bank

Nicholas President
Biddle Jackson
Jackson v. the Bank
 Clay, Webster, and others
provoked a controversy for the
presidential election of 1832.
Convinced Biddle to seek re-
charter 4 years early.
– Jackson predictably vetoed.
– Clay hoped the veto controversy
would propel him into the White
House. Failed.
Jackson v. the Bank
 Jackson decided to kill the bank
by taking fed deposits out.
Jackson so determined, he fired
two Treasury Secretaries who
refused to do this because it
would destabilize the economy.
The third, Roger Taney (Dred
Scott) did it.
Jackson v. the Bank
• Biddle called in loans and raise
interest rates, citing lack of
resources. This further destabilized
the economy.
• Bitter conflict between the two
men. Personal duel.
• US economy struggled in 1833-4.
Pro-BUS people blamed Jackson.
Pro-Jackson people blamed Biddle.
• Biddle eventually backed down.
Bank died in 1836.
The Specie Circular (1936)
 “wildcat banks.”

 buy future federal

land only with gold or
 Jackson’s goal?
Results of the Specie Circular
 Banknotes loose their value.
 Land sales plummeted.
 Credit not available.
 Businesses began to fail.
 Unemployment rose.

The Panic of 1837!

The Panic of 1837 Spreads
The Downfall of “Mother Bank”
An 1832
The 1836 Election Results

Martin Van Buren

“Old Kinderhook”
[O. K.]
Andrew Jackson in
Photo of Andrew
Jackson in 1844
(one year before his death)

1767 - 1845