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Human Resource Training and Development


Orientation is a systematic and planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co-workers and the organization.

formal individual

informal collective





Strategic choices of orientatio


To help the new comer to overcome his shyness To build new employees confidence To develop the new entrants a sense of belonging and loyalty To foster a close relationship To prevent false impression and negative attitude of the new employees To give the new comers necessary information like canteen, locker room. Rest periods and leave rules etc


Welcoming to the organization Explain about company Show the location/department where the new recruit will work Give the company manual to the new recruit Provide details about various work groups and the extent of unionism within the company

Give details about pay,benefits,holidays,leave etc. Explain future training opportunities and career prospectus Clarify doubts, by encouraging the employees to come with the questions Take employee on a guided tour of building, facilities, etc. Hand him over to his supervisor.


It helps to build two way communication It facilitates informal relations and team work Induction is helpful in supplying information about the organization, job, and welfare of employees Proper Induction will reduce employees grievances, absenteeism and labor turnover Induction helps to develop good public relations and improve the overall morale of employees An Induction program proves that the company is taking a sincere interest in


Employee is overwhelmed with too much information in a short time. Employee is overloaded with form to complete. Employees mistakes can damage the company.

Employee is asked to perform tasks where there are high chances of failure that could needlessly discourage the employee. Employee is thrown into action too soon. Employee s wrong perceptions because of short periods spent on each job.

Training & Development

Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job.

Training is a art of increasing knowledge, skills, & capacity of a person.

Training vs. development

Learning dimensions Meant for Focus

Operatives Current

Executives Current





current skills by

and future jobs Work group+ organization future work demands


Training vs. development

Learning dimensions


Development job

related information






Training Need assessment

Training Need assessment

rganizational analysis Person analysis Task & role analysis

Organizational analysis:




Analysis of objective: short term & long term Resource utilization analysis: human, physical & financial Environmental scanning: social, economical, political, technological Organizational climate analysis: turnover & absenteeism ratio

Task & Role analysis

Job Components Operations & conditions of job Skills, knowledge, attitude methods

Person analysis

performers Person potential

Data sources used in training Need assessment

Organizational Task analysis analysis Organizational Job description goals & Job objectives specification Personnel Performance inventories standard Skills Work sampling inventories Reviewing Climate literature analysis Asking que Efficiency index about job Exit interview MBO

Person analysis Performance appraisals Work sampling Interviews Questionnaire Tests Training progress Rating scales Diaries Role play

Need assessment 1) Organi. support 2) Organi. analysis 3) task & role analysis 4 ) person analysis Instructional objective

Training process
Development of criteria Training validity Transfer validity Intra Organizational validity

Selection & design of instructional program training

Inter Organizational Use of validity evaluation models

Designing training and development program

Who are the trainees Who are the trainers What techniques & methods What should be the level of training What principles of learning Where to conduct the program

Designing training and development program

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

What principles of learning: Motivation Recognition of Individual differences Practice opportunities Reinforcement Feedback Goals Schedule of learning Meaning of material Transfer of learning

Designing training and development program

1. 2. 3.

Where to conduct the program: At the job itself On site but not the job Off the site

Benefits to organization

Better quality of work Higher productivity Cost reduction High morale Reduced supervision Less learning period Personal growth Fewer accidents Brings loyalty

Benefits to employees

Self confidence Safety Higher earning Promotion adaptability New skills Personal growth








On-the-Job Training

On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior.


Coaching refers to the activity of a coach in developing the abilities of coaches or clients. Coaching methods includes both theoretical and practical sections. Where motivational speeches are done theoretically, workshop, seminars come under practical methods.

Job instruction training

Step by step structured training method in which a trainer (1) prepares a trainee with an overview of the job its purpose, and the results desired, (2) demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (3) allows the trainee to mimic the demonstration on his or her own (4) employee does the job independently

Job rotation

Job rotation is an approach to management development where an individual is moved through a schedule of designed to give him or her a breadth of exposure to the entire operation. Job rotation is also practiced to allow qualified employees to gain more insights into the processes of a company, and to reduce boredom and increase job satisfaction & skill

Off the job training

Off the job training involves employees taking training courses away from their place of work. This is often also referred to as "formal training". Off the job training courses might be run by the business' training department or by external providers. - Use of specialist trainers and accommodation - Employee can focus on the training -

Vestibule training

Vestibule training is a type of instruction using a vestibule, a small area away from the actual worksite, consisting of training equipment exactly duplicating the materials and equipment used on the job. The purpose of vestibule training is to reproduce an actual work setting and place it under the trainer's control to allow for immediate and constructive feedback. Training vestibules are useful because they allow trainees to practice while avoiding personal injury and damage to expensive

Training is basically incomplete without lecture. When the trainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes, or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method Main Features of Lecture Method:

Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise

Role Plays

Trainees act out characters assigned to them. Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees. Focus on interpersonal responses. Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees. The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and


Evaluation helps determining the results of training & development program.

ng evaluation provides the data needed to

nstrate that training does provide benefits to the co

Need for evaluation

To determine the accomplishment of specific training objective To determine the Cost effectiveness To determine the Program failure To determine the Correcting performance deficiencies Any Change in trainee capabilities are due to training & not due to any other condition

Conduct a Needs Analysis Develop Measurable Learning Outcomes and Analyze Transfer of Training
Develop Outcome Measures Choose an Evaluation Strategy Plan and Execute the Evaluation

Importance of Training Evaluation

Improved quality of training activities Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to outputs Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of support and those that should be dropped Better integration of training offered and on-the job development Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the development of staff

Outcome Measures
Reactions Trainee satisfaction Learning Acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, Behavior Improvement of behavior on the job Results Business results achieved by trainees

Question naries Time series Evaluation methods

Experimental & Control groups


interviews Cost benefits analysis

How to make training more effective

Management should commit itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. Training should contribute to competitive strategies of the firm. Training should be done eat all levels on a continue and ongoing basis. Their should be proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual training needs. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.

HRD mechanisms

Counseling Coaching Training & development Performance appraisal Potential appraisal Career planning and development Organizational development


It is a two way process in which a counselor provides help to the workers by way of advice and guidance. It is a two way process of helping subordinates to achieve better adjustments with their work environment to behave as psychologically mature individuals and help in achieving a better understanding with others so his dealing with them can be effective and purposeful.


coaching is the practice of giving sufficient direction, instruction and training to a person or a group people, so as to achieve some goals or even in developing specific skills. Though coaching is a system of providing training, the method of coaching differs from person to person, aim or goals to be attained, and the areas needed.

Training & development

Training enables an employee to do his present job more efficiently and prepare himself for a higher level job.

Training is a art of increasing knowledge, skills, & capacity of a person.

Performance appraisal

A performance appraisal, is a method by which the job performance of an employee is evaluated generally in terms of quality, quantity, cost, and time typically by the corresponding manager or supervisor. It is the process of obtaining, analyzing, and recording information about the relative worth of an employee to the organization. Performance appraisal is an analysis of an employee's recent successes and failures, personal strengths and weaknesses, and suitability for promotion or further training.

Potential appraisal

The potential appraisal refers to the appraisal i.e. identification of the hidden talents and skills of a person. The person might or might not be aware of them. Potential appraisal is a future oriented appraisal whose main objective is to identify and evaluate the potential of the employees to assume higher positions and responsibilities in the organizational hierarchy.

Career planning & development

. Career development helps you take stock of who you are and where you want to go in life. Career Development examines your present job situation and features of the job that will enable you to use your aptitudes, values, skills, competencies. A career plan is meant to set goals to develop the required skills that you need and will need in the future.

Organizational development

O.D is a set of behavioral science based theories, values, strategies & techniques aimed at the planned change of the organizational work settings for the purpose of enhancing individual development and improving organizational performance. Four types of interventions are used : Team intervention Inter-group intervention Structural Intervention Comprehensive intervention

HRD for Organizational Growth and Effectiveness