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Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

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Contrast the Three Components of an Attitude


Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events Three components of an attitude:
Affective Cognitive

The opinion or belief segment of an attitude

The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude

Behavioral

An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

Attitude
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Summarize the Relationship Between Attitudes and Behavior


The attitudes people hold determine what they do. Festinger proposed that cases of attitude following behavior illustrate the effects of cognitive dissonance.
Cognitive Dissonance is incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.

Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior.
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Summarize the Relationship Between Attitudes and Behavior


Importance of the attitude Its correspondence to behavior Its accessibility The presence of social pressure Whether or not a person has had direct experience with the behavior The attitude/behavior relationship is stronger if it refers to something in our direct personal experience
Attitude

Mitigating Variables

Predicts

Behavior
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Compare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudes


Job Satisfaction
A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics

Job Involvement
Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to selfworth

Logical Empowerment
Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy
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Compare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudes


Organizational Commitment
Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization. Three dimensions: Affective emotional attachment to organization Continuance Commitment economic value of staying Normative moral or ethical obligations
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Compare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudes


Organizational Commitment (cont)
Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees. Theoretical models propose that employees who are committed will be less likely to engage in work withdrawal even if they are dissatisfied, because they have a sense of organizational loyalty.

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Compare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudes


Perceived Organizational Support (POS)
Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their wellbeing. Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision making, and supervisors are seen as supportive. High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance.
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Compare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudes


Employee Engagement
The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job. Engaged employees are passionate about their work and company.

3-9

Compare and Contrast the Major Job Attitudes


Are These Job Attitudes Really Distinct?
No: these attitudes are highly related Variables may be redundant (measuring the same thing under a different name) While there is some distinction, there is also a lot of overlap Overlap may cause confusion

3-10

Define Job Satisfaction and Show How It Can Be Measured


Job satisfaction
A positive feeling about a job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics

Two approaches for measuring Job Satisfaction are popular:


The single global rating The summation of job facets
Copyright 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice 3-11

Define Job Satisfaction and Show How It Can Be Measured

Insert Exhibit 3.2

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Summarize the Main Causes of Job Satisfaction


Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point.
After about $40,000 per year (in the U.S.), there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. Money may bring happiness, but not necessarily job satisfaction.

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Summarize the Main Causes of Job Satisfaction

Insert Exhibit 3-3

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Summarize the Main Causes of Job Satisfaction

Insert Exhibit 3-4

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Summarize the Main Causes of Job Satisfaction


Personality also plays a role in Job Satisfaction. People who have positive core self-evaluations, who believe in their inner worth and basic competence are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core self-evaluations. Those with negative core self-evaluations set less ambitious goals and are more likely to give up when confronting difficulties.

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Identify Four Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction

Insert Exhibit 3-5

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Summary and Implications for Managers


Satisfied and committed employees have lower rates of turnover, absenteeism, and withdrawal behaviors. Managers will also want to measure job attitudes effectively so they can tell how employees are reacting to their work. The most important thing managers can do to raise employee satisfaction is focus on the intrinsic parts of the job, such as making the work challenging and interesting. Although paying employees poorly will likely not attract high-quality employees to the organization or keep high performers, managers should realize that high pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying work environment.

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EMPLOYEE MORALE
"You can't buy your employee's enthusiasm, loyalty, hearts, minds, or souls. You must earn these."

DEFINING MORALE
It's easier to describe it as a "state of mind, a mood, a mental condition" (Bennet & Hess 1998).
Positive affective orientation towards membership" (Price 1972), Group Cohesiveness. In this sense, morale is the behavior of employees wanting to belong to the organization and who are being happy with their organization.

MEASURING MORALE
The Job Satisfaction Survey (averaging up individual responses from strongly disagree to strongly agree). Over the years, there have been a bewildering variety of job satisfaction surveys created, but most analysis of such items have revealed the following core dimensions or salient factors:
This is a good place to work My supervisor understands me My supervisor listens to my concerns I have the training I need to do a good job I have the equipment I need to do a good job I am proud to be a member of this organization

Surveys are used in two ways: (a) as a means of appeasement, where management is trying to make it look like they care about employee morale; and (b) as a way to follow through with some action, and the most important actions that can be taken are salary equity studies, benefits recalculation, and changing for innovation.

MEASURING MORALE
the Great American Buy-In: getting the employees to buy into the mission statement The higher the prestige of the occupation and the greater the concentration of specialists, the higher the level of collective morale as bridging the micro-macro gap (Hage 1980).

MORALE BUILDING EXERCISES


Be positive & upbeat (accentuate the positive). Turn "Don't" statements into "Do" statements Set meaningful goals (with "meaningful" meaning with employee input) Set fair goals (with "fair" meaning at a level where almost everybody succeeds) Be even-handed in praise and criticism (strive for a even 50-50 split even if you have to force it) Make no promises that can't be kept (avoid use of the phrase "I might be able to do that for you")

MORALE BUILDING EXERCISES


Improve appearances (in dress, logo redesign, insignia, signs, banners, colors) Create awards programs (competitions, recognitions, certificates of appreciation) Establish teams (best in budget crunches, and tend to produce employee giveaways via groupthink) Start using nicknames (or first names; give everyone a nickname based on some talent they have) Learn the art of bulletin board decoration (a combination of aesthetic appeal and functionality)

MORALE BUILDING PROJECTS


(1) SUGGESTION BOX. One of the oldest methods with some
empirical support. Collective morale is increased when workers are consulted in advance and allowed to make suggestions, even if anonymously (Coch & French 1948).

(2) EMPLOYEE INTERVIEW. These are 20-minute ventilation


sessions where the employees, one-by-one, get to spill out all their thoughts and feelings to a manager, uninterrupted and unrecorded. However, there is usually a final report summarizing management's perception of the organization's collective morale. (Hamilton, NJ PD)

MORALE BUILDING PROJECTS


EMPLOYEE COUNCIL. These are teams put together by
elected, rotated-every-quarter, representatives from each division of the organization. (West Bend, WI SO) Usually, the teams focus on 1-2 specific problems during the 3-month period, and produce a report with the following sections: Introduction Problem statement Alternative solutions Cost analysis Method of implementation Summary

MORALE BUILDING PROJECTS


EMPLOYEE INCENTIVE PROGRAMS. There are a
variety of these, and a partial list would include:
Fast promotion track (leapfrogging) - a good FTO report leads to early sergeant exam eligibility Extra bonus vacation or sick days Tuition reimbursements Stock options/pension contributions

MORALE BUILDING PROJECTS


MASTER PATROL OFFICER (MPO) Program. This
is a program for boosting the morale of veteran officers (Thrash 1992). It is basically a point system for various accomplishments throughout the police patrol career that lead to a special status, insignia, or designation within rank.